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The University of Edinburgh

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23-25 JUNE 2022


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Panel session

The Ingenious Mr Clagget: The Life, Work and Inventions of Charles Clagget

Rachael Durkin, John Humphries, and Jenny Nex

This proposed panel explores the life and work of Charles Clagget (1733 - 1796). Born in Norfolk in 1733 (and not Ireland), Charles and his brother Walter (1736 - 1797) worked as musicians in Britain and Ireland during a period of rapid development in commercial and domestic music. While Walter pursued a relatively stable career as a musician, teacher and composer, Charles embarked on a broader portfolio which included instrument sales, and latterly, invention and ' improvements' to instruments and tools, notably through ideas relating to intonation. The panel opens with John Humphries' overview of Charles and Walter's activities, Charles' Musical Museum in Greek St., London, and Charles' connections to other key cultural figures. Rachael Durkin then explores the overlooked relationship between Charles and the engineer James Watt through rediscovered letters in the Watt Archive, and discusses how influential Watt was on Charles' move into musical innovation concerning intonation. Finally, Jenny Nex will look at the tuning set made to Charles' design, providing us with unique insight into Charles' thinking about intonation as just one of very few surviving items from Charles' patents.

Paper 1: 'Musical Phenomena' : the brothers Charles and Walter Clagget
John Humphries
The musical inventor Charles Clagget has had a walk-on part in the story of British music ever since the years following his death in 1796. He is mentioned in Rees's Cyclopedia (1807) and Sainsbury's Dictionary (1825), and later in the 19th Century, he received entries in the first edition of Grove's Dictionary and in the Dictionary of National Biography. He is referenced in more modern publications too, but even today, many sources give information which is vague, confused or simply incorrect. This paper will examine the lives and careers of Charles and his brother Walter, and it will attempt to fill in gaps in the literature, unravel some of the confusion, and correct some of the mistakes. Far from being Irish, as most sources suggest, it will show that the Clagget brothers were the sons of Ann and Will Clagget, a dancer who worked at Sadlers Wells Theatre in London, and that they spent parts of their careers in provincial England and in Scotland. Both also spent time in Ireland - Charles more than Walter - and it is from Charles's time living in Waterford that the idea that they were Irish has originated. As this paper will show, both returned to London, where Charles opened a 'Musical Museum' . He seems to have been hopeless with money, and while the museum served to showcase his musical inventions, the venture ended in bankruptcy. Finally, this paper will also consider his acquaintance with Joseph Haydn and the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

John Humphries read Music at Oxford University, and then studied the natural horn at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama. He is author of The Early Horn, A Practical Guide (CUP) and a contributor to the Cambridge Encyclopedia of Brass Instruments. His reconstructions of Mozart's incomplete horn concerto movements have been recorded several times over. He is also an arranger and works as a music examiner and teacher.

Paper 2: 'To bring a Science to perfection' : Charles Clagget, James Watt and musical innovation
Rachael Durkin
Charles Clagget started his career as a dancing-master, musician, teacher and composer, but by the 1760s he was buying and selling instruments in Dublin, later going into business briefly with William Gibson the guitar maker. From 1761 we have records of Clagget buying instruments from James Watt in Glasgow, Scotland: a maker of musical instruments and components and mathematical tools, who would later go on to become one of the most famous and influential engineers of the age. The relationship between Clagget and Watt has been largely overlooked, but the discovery of correspondence between the two men in the Watt Archive, Birmingham (UK), provides the first real insight into Clagget's interests, personality and financial struggles away from the puff and patter of his publications and advertisements. Most significantly, the letters position Watt as a key influence of Clagget's move from instrument sales into innovation, and particularly Clagget's interest in correcting intonation. This paper will consider Clagget's relationship with James Watt, and how this directly influenced his quest to improve intonation primarily for the domestic music-making market. Through examination of this newly discovered correspondence in the Watt Archive, this paper will start by considering the relationship between Clagget and Watt as two professionals initially working in the same trade, and how these letters illuminate part of Clagget's musical social network. The paper will then consider the inventions discussed and documented in the letters, and how these innovations fed into Clagget's own patented instruments and accessories. Finally, the paper will conclude by framing Clagget's work as part of wider discussions of intonation in the late eighteenth century, and posits that Clagget was at the forefront of the movement towards establishing agreed temperaments of our contemporary Western classical music tradition.

Rachael Durkin completed her PhD in organology at The University of Edinburgh in 2015, and now works as a Senior Lecturer of Music at Northumbria University. Her research focuses primarily on stringed instruments of the long eighteenth century, and her monograph The Viola d' Amore: Its History and Development was published by Routledge in 2020.

Paper 3: Charles Clagget's ' Tuning Forks with Balls'
Jenny Nex
In 1788, a patent relating to musical instruments and their tuning was enrolled in London in the name of Charles Clagget. In this, and in his previous patent from 1776, Clagget was particularly concerned with keyboard instruments and instruments with frets, that is to say instruments that have to be tuned to a particular temperament before playing begins and those where a temperament is built into the instrument itself. This paper explores in detail the seventh item described in the 1788 patent, ' Tuning forks with balls or weights for the more easy tuning of musical instruments' , bringing together evidence from the patent and other archives where Clagget's ideas are explained alongside a set of the patented tuning forks now in the Musical Instrument Collection at the University of Edinburgh. This set, contained in a fitted box, includes four forks and associated weights, a tuning hammer conforming to the description of the ninth item in the 1788 patent, a string-winding hook on a shaped handle for making hitchpin loops, a small pair of specially shaped tweezers to hold the weights and two wedges for dampening adjacent strings. Through analysing the objects and archives together, we can gain a fuller picture of Clagget's intended aims, to create ' musical instruments, which will be perfect in their kind, and much easier to be performed on than any hitherto discovered' .

Jenny Nex studied music at the University of Edinburgh and voice at the Guildhall School of Music. Her MA in Museum & Gallery Management and PhD concerning 'The Business of Musical-Instrument Making in Early Industrial London' support her work as Curator, firstly at the Royal College of Music and, since 2013, with the Musical Instrument Collection at the University of Edinburgh.


The llautë and its uses and functions in local traditions in Albania

Ardian Ahmedaja

The llautë is a short-necked lute used in several local practices in Albania. Its four pairs of strings are tuned according to the circle of fifths, and its frets allow a chromatic scale to be played. Parallels with instruments of the oud family in the Mediterranean area and the Middle East are obvious. But there are nevertheless differences both in the construction and in the uses and functions of the instrument. The llautë construction even differs from the ud, a fretless lute from the oud family with five courses of double strings that is, however, no longer used in modern-day local practices in Albania.
One of the specific features of the uses and functions of the llautë is its past role as a solo instrument. Solo performances were known generally until the 1980s and were for the most part improvisations on well-known song and/or dance melodies.
The llautë continues to be played most commonly in ensembles consisting of a violin, clarinet, accordion (occasionally), llautë and dajre or def (frame drum with jingles). These ensembles, which nowadays can also include a keyboard and other electronic instruments, accompany singing and dancing in southern Albania as well as among Albanians living in the area of Ohrid and Prespa lakes in North Macedonia. The musicians in these areas call such an ensemble a saze. This term was used in central and northern Albania to designate a lute, which was a member of the saz family, but is out of practice today.
It is striking that music traditions in the south are based largely on the pentatonic system, while in central and northern Albania they are based on the diatonic system and the phenomenon of maqam. The llautë's rearrangement as a 'harmony' instrument in the ensemble consists mainly of fourths/fifths, which are necessary to conform with such dissimilar musical systems. In some cases, it is used also as a guitar, in the sense of the major-minor tonality. In improvisations performed by a saze ensemble and which are mostly led by the clarinet or the violin, the llautë sometimes appears as a soloist.
The aim of the presentation is to show how much uses and functions of a musical instrument influence its specific features in comparison with similar musical instruments.

Ardian Ahmedaja is Senior Researcher at the Department of Folk Music Research and Ethnomusicology (IVE) of the University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna (MDW), Austria. He is the ICTM liaison officer for Albania and Chairperson of the ICTM Study Group on Multipart Music. A recent publication is the 2021 edited volume Shaping Sounds and Values. Multipart Music as a Means of Social and Cultural Interaction. CD-ROM with 27 audiovisual examples included. Riga: Musica Baltica.

The Oval Flugelhorn as Nightingale Preaching the Gospel: Personal Music Practice of Johannes Kuhlo and his Protestant Consciousness

Ryoto Akiyama

The oval flugelhorn or Kuhlohorn associated with Johannes Kuhlo (1856 - 1941) is a symbolic instrument for the Posaunenchor in German Protestantism. This paper addresses the domestic solo playing of Kuhlo and aims to demonstrate how he attempted to embody the auditive Gospel through the performance of his oval flugelhorn. The oval flugelhorn was his most intimate medium to immerse into the Gospel. He always carried his flugelhorn along everywhere to play choral melody. Besides the practice of the Posaunenchor, he also enjoyed playing the domestic solo with the piano accompaniment. Investigation on his personal musical practice can foster a deeper understanding of the Protestant conception of the brass instruments in the 'long nineteenth century'. The critical treatment as well as the closer inspection of this instrument and its performance practice is nevertheless necessary, as the well-known biographical description by Wilhelm Ehmann (1904 - 1989) demonstrates only a highly idealised view in the post-war conservatism of Germany.
The present investigation focuses on the construction of this oval flugelhorn in the context of historical organology and on the repertoire analysis based on archival sources. Probably, the instrument makers around Vogtland developed this particular form of the flugelhorn around the 1870s. The prominent producers were August Clemens Glier and other brass instrument manufactures in Markneukirchen. After Ernst David established his workshop in Bielefeld in 1895/96, Kuhlo exclusively admired his products and developed his specific model. David's main alternation from the Vogtland model may be the wider bore to enable the darker timbre of the vocal character, as well as the crook form around the main tuning slide for the pitch accuracy. Regarding the repertoire for solo playing, Kuhlo preferred the German Romantic piano songs as well as the choral melodies. Kuhlo's library includes the lied anthologies of composers like Schubert, Schumann and Brahms. The chamber performance of Kuhlo reflects the musico-religious conception of the conservative Protestantism which consolidates the idealisation of vocal religious music and patriotic emotion.
The flugelhorn was initially a military signal instrument and equipped later with the progressive technology of brass instrument making in the nineteenth century. Kuhlo's practice with the oval flugelhorn can reveal the mediation of the Christian religiosity through industrial technology in the domestic space and the semantic transformation of the flugelhorn.

Ryoto Akiyama, PhD is postdoctoral fellow of the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science at the Institute of Research in Humanities at Kyoto University and guest researcher at the Research Center DIGITAL ORGANOLOGY at the Musikinstrumentenmuseum der Universitdt Leipzig. His main research field is the technology and performance practice of the brass instruments in the German speaking area with organological, ethnographical and historiographical perspectives, especially Posaunenchor and its cultural expression.

A(n) (Un)Missing Link Between Keys and Valves: Three Keyed Trumpet Solo Works Arranged for Early Valved Trumpet, Flügelhorn, and Valved Trombone by Joseph Kail for the Prague Conservatory

Robert Apple

A prevalent misconception regarding the music composed for the keyed trumpet is that it had little influence on that performed on the early valved instruments that eventually replaced it. If one only considers the two most well-known solo works written for the keyed trumpet - the Haydn and Hummel trumpet concertos - this appears to be true, since there is no evidence of them being played on valved brasses before the twentieth century. In past presentations, however, I pointed out that much of the military and church music that originally employed the keyed trumpet was later played using the early valved trumpet and flügelhorn, thus ensuring that much of the keyed trumpet's ensemble repertory continued to be performed long after it fell out of use, which is perhaps not unexpected given the pragmatism of many music directors.
What is surprising, however, is that Joseph Kail - an important figure in the development of the double-piston and rotary valve - arranged three solo works originally composed for the keyed trumpet for early valved trumpet, flügelhorn, and valved trombone with piano accompaniment for use in his teaching at the Prague Conservatory. These works are the Fiala Divertimento, and an Introduction et Polonaise and Adagio and Variations by Kail's former Prague Conservatory horn classmate, Joseph Höffner. Kail's arrangments of these pieces for early valved trumpet and trombone date from a few years after 1826, the year he became professor of those instruments at the Prague Conservatory, and the flügelhorn arrangments most likely date from or after 1852, when he began teaching that instrument there as well.
Kail's arrangements of these works represent a(n) (un)missing link between the music composed for the keyed trumpet and that later written for its valved successors, and their existence further builds a case for the transition from keyed to valved soprano brass instruments not being a clean and immediate break, but one of overlapping and gradual change. In creating his arrangements, Kail did more than simply produce keyboard reductions of each piece's accompaniment and adjust the tessitura and key of each work to better fit these valved instruments. He also altered and ornamented their solo parts to better demonstrate the improved technical capabilities of these instruments over of those the keyed trumpet. Examining these changes can grant scholars insight into what material Kail felt was idiomatic for each of these valved instruments and provide an idea of his playing abilities on them.

Robert Apple earned his B.M. and M.M. in trumpet performance in 2011 and 2013 respectively. In 2018, he was awarded a Fulbright grant allowing him to spend nine months in Austria to continue his dissertation research. He is currently a Ph.D. candidate in musicology at the University of Memphis and is working to complete a graduate certificate in museum studies. Robert studies and plays the baroque, keyed, and early valved trumpets, and the keyed bugle.

Barítona: the lost instrument of the cobla

Albert Fontelles-Ramonet and Núria Bonet

A cobla is a Catalan ensemble consisting of wood, brass and percussion instruments: two trumpets, one trombone, two fiscorns (bass flugelhorn), one double bass; and three instruments typical of Catalonia and the Roussillon: a flabiol and tamborí (pipe and tabor), two tibles (treble shawm) and two tenoras (tenor shawm). This ensemble consolidated in the mid-19th century to play sardana music, but also other dances, such as waltzes, polkas and habaneras. During the 1910s, some social groups and artists in Barcelona created initiatives with a shared objective: to bring the cobla to concert halls, in the way that other European music ensembles, such as wind bands, had already done. Composition competitions elevated the cobla to prestigious spaces and expanded its expressive possibilities with a repertoire closer to chamber and symphonic, rather than dance, music. At the same time, some of the cobla's instruments, such as the tenora and the tible, were incorporated into symphonic ensembles, such Banda Municipal de Barcelona, a symphonic wind band conducted by Lamote de Grignon and admired by Stravinsky, Strauss and Falla. Consequently, several luthiers sought to improve some features of these instruments during the 1920s, and even create new ones, such as the tenora barítona (baritone shawm) by Casa Giménez. Despite evidence of its existence, examples of this barítona instrument have not survived to the present day. In fact, when the Institut d' Estudis Catalans presented a reconstruction in 2014, it claimed that it had never been built previously, but only dreamed up by the conductor Lamote de Grignon.
In this paper, we will discuss the evidence for the short existence of the barítona as part of the symphonic ensemble of the Banda Municipal de Barcelona during the 1930s through scores, iconography and descriptions. While the original instrument has all but disappeared, we are able to describe its physical characteristics and sound, and situate it within the context of the cobla.

Albert Fontelles-Ramonet holds a PhD (Universitat Auto?noma de Barcelona, 2020) in Musicology with a dissertation on Cobla Barcelona (1922-1938) and the relations of Stravinsky and Manuel de Falla with Catalonia and the ensemble. He has also earned a BA in Perfomance with Honours (Escola Superior de Música de Catalunya, 2015) and MA in Music Education (Universidad Internacional de Valencia, 2016). Most of his research and publications focus on early 20th century Spanish and Catalan music. He has taught at the Escola Superior de Música de Catalunya (ESMUC), Conservatoire for Dance of the Institut del Teatre and the Conservatori dels Pirineus.
Núria Bonet is a Lecturer in Music at the University of Plymouth. She holds a PhD from the University of Plymouth; her doctoral research looked at the use of scientific data as compositional material. She also researches Catalan music and instruments and has published on mechanised shawms such as the Catalan tenora and the Chinese suona.

The Collection of Otto Friedrich Carl von Voẞ - A Source for (Domestic) Music Making in the late 18th Century?

Christian Breternitz

With the change of government in Prussia from Frederick II (Frederick the Great) to Frederick William II, not only did a modernisation of the repertoire begin, but also an economisation. At the same time, an opening towards the civil society in the sense of the Enlightenment as well as an expansion of the repertoire is not discernible. Music at court remained an exclusive pleasure. The aspiring citizens' desire for music therefore led, on the one hand, increasingly to privately organised concerts and, on the other hand, to more and more musical activity in the domestic sphere.
One of those interested in music at the intersection of the aristocracy and the aspiring citizenry was Otto Carl Friedrich von Voẞ (1755-1823), Geheimer Staatsminister (minister of state) and Domdechant (Cathedral Dean) in the Kingdom of Prussia. His interest in music gave rise to a large collection of music, which is listed in a surviving inventory from the last decade of the 18th century. In addition to a few larger concertos, the musical materials mainly comprise works of chamber music with smaller ensembles, which can also be understood as a field of activity for domestic music making in upper-class circles. The collection of Otto von Voẞ, however, did not only include the music, but also musical instruments. A “Verzeichniss der musicalischen Instrumente” (list of musical instruments) preceding the music catalogue provides information on this.
The lecture will pursue the question of the extent to which Otto von Voẞ's collection of musical instruments stands for an emerging domestic music making in the broadest sense in Berlin at the end of the 18th century. In this context, selected examples will be used to explore the question of the contemporary significance of the musical instruments listed.

Christian Breternitz studied musicology, educational science and psychology in Weimar and Jena. In 2019, he completed his doctorate at the Universität der Künste Berlin on “Berliner Blechblasinstrumentenbau im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert”. After working at the Musikinstrumenten-Museum (Berlin, 2012-2014), the Landesmuseum Württemberg (Stuttgart, 2015-2017) and the Deutsches Museum (Munich, 2017-2021), he has been working as a research associate and curator for woodwind, brass and percussion instruments at the Musikinstrumenten-Museum Berlin since 2020.

Instruments of Change: technical developments and brass chamber music repertoire in mid-nineteenth century Paris

Sandy Coffin

The rapid and continued development of new forms of chromatic brass instruments in the mid-nineteenth century led to the creation of a wealth of brass repertoire both for soloists and for small-scale brass ensembles. Paris in the 1850 and 60s was an especially active and influential musical environment. The small brass ensemble was emerging as an important experimental outlet for composers and performers, providing opportunities in both public and private performance and in music-training situations for brass musicians to develop an expanded palette of sounds and nuanced performance techniques. This created a cycle of invention and experimentation among instrument designers, composers and performers.
Reviews and articles in the French music press reveal a circle of writers and critics who were calling for chamber music for brass instruments equal to that previously only available for strings and piano. A number of composers and arrangers stepped forward to meet this challenge, particularly those who were working directly with Adolphe Sax or at least with his instruments, such as chefs de musique in the French military.
This paper provides a repertoire-focused perspective on refinements to brass instruments in Paris circa 1848-1868 by examining the instrumentation and timbral possibilities in three sets of chamber music composed for chromatic brass during this period: the twelve quintets and septets of Auguste Mimart; the twelve quintets and other compositions of his predecessor Jean-François Bellon; and a later series of quintet arrangements by Julien Tollot. It compares the specific instruments for which each composed and the contexts in which their works were written and performed. It further explores some of the cross-Channel exchanges, collaborations, and competition during this period in relation to the development of different brass ensemble traditions in France and Britain.

Sandy Coffin is a current PhD student at the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland, investigating mid-nineteenth century brass solo and chamber music repertoire written during periods of major innovation and societal shifts. Sandy has worked with such groups as The Wallace Collection Ensemble, and continues to work as an educator, arranger, freelance musician, and copy editor. She earned degrees in Trumpet and Latin from Oberlin College/Conservatory, and a master's from Manhattan School of Music.

Musical Instruments and Object Biographies: Charlie Parker, Massey Hall, and Grafton 10265

Stephen Cottrell

The concert given at Massey Hall, Toronto, on 15 May 1953 has become an iconic event in jazz history: it was the only occasion on which five leading lights of the jazz firmament of the time - Dizzy Gillespie, Charles Mingus, Charlie Parker, Bud Powell and Max Roach - played on stage together. It was also the last recorded meeting of Gillespie and Parker, who had done so much in the 1940s to establish the fast-paced, harmonically complex musical language of bebop. Legacy images of the event show the white plastic alto saxophone that Parker was playing that night. This was the same saxophone, Grafton 10265, acquired by Kansas City's American Jazz Museum in 1994, which now anchors their permanent collection. The display provides the final resting place for an iconic instrument whose journey started as an output of a minor technological innovation introduced by a small London manufacturer in post-war Britain.
In this paper I will consider how charting the object biography of such an instrument can be used to illustrate broader patterns of musical and social change. Drawing on work by ethnomusicologists such as Eliot Bates and Kevin Dawe, as well as literary theorists such as Rodney Stenning Edgecombe and anthropologists such as Clifford Geertz and George Marcus, I will consider how narrative strategies vivify these musical object biographies. I will also illustrate the changing meanings that have been associated with Grafton 10265, and what these reveal about Parker, the Grafton alto, and the jazz tradition itself.

Stephen Cottrell is Professor of Music at City, University of London. His research interests encompass: ethnographic approaches to musicians and music-making, particularly within the Western art music tradition; the study of musical instruments, especially the saxophone; and the study of musical performance. Books include Professional Music-making in London (Ashgate, 2004), The Saxophone (Yale, 2012), Defining the Discographic Self: Desert Island Discs in Context (OUP, 2017) and Music, Dance, Anthropology (RAI/Sean Kingston, 2021).

Synthesizers for Darwin? On Prestige and Conservatism in the Evolution of Musical Instruments

Ignace De Keyser

Compared to natural selection, cultural artefacts are not reproduced through a genetically transmitted code, but through information transmission between humans. Linear and lateral forms of information transmission are a consequence of the different technical domains accessed by their makers as musical instruments themselves evolved towards increasing complexity. New musical instruments are mostly variants of existing models, which are only successfully accepted because they are more adapted to a changing cultural environment than their predecessors. Although social acceptance is an important parameter, one may wonder whether evolutionary mechanisms, independent of a cultural context, are present in the development of musical instruments as well.

Ignace De Keyser holds a Ph. D. in Musicology (Ghent University). He taught organology at the Antwerp and Ghent Conservatories. Curator at the Brussels MIM and the Royal Museum for Central Africa [RMCA] in Tervuren (Belgium), now retired, he still works as a benevolent employee at RMCA. His publications cover the famous wind-instrument makers Adolphe Sax and Charles Mahillon, the role of Victor Mahillon in the development of organology in the West, and cross-cultural themes.

Documenting antique musical instruments in 19th-century Parisian worskhops

Jean-Philippe Échard

What are the relations between the mental representation of a musical instrument (type) in the mind of an instrument maker and his recording of selected features observed on specific instruments (artefacts) ? These features largely depend on how much they stand out from the general concept of that instrument, on the conventions in use for that instrument, and on the skill, methods and dedication of the maker observing and documenting the instrument (artefact). The study of two sets of documents created in two of the most prominent violin-making workshops in Paris in the 19th century, and previously unpublished (coll. musée de la Musique, Paris), will allow approaching these aspects from an historical angle.
The first set of documents are hundreds of drawn or cut-out outlines and templates (sounding boxes, sound-holes, scrolls, archings, etc.) from the workshop of Georges Chanot and Joseph Chardon (from ca.1819 on). Many of them bear inscriptions indicating maker's name, date and the owner's name of the documented instrument. This set is, to our knowledge, among the most ancient geometrical records of many individual instruments of one type. We will attempt interpreting their function in a workshop of this time: Under which criteria and process were the information selected for preservation? What does it say of the unselected ones? The cumulative process of recording technico-stylistic features from various makers or schools constituted a growing store of knowledge that was possibly useful, not only as inspiration when making their own instruments, but also as an aide-mémoire to attribute violins.
The second set of documents are handwritten ledgers documenting the trade of used instruments by Charles-François Gand and successors, between ca.1841 and ca.1920 . These internal documents are the records of the purchase and selling of more than 3,000 violins by the workshop, each of them being described. Our study of the changes in these descriptions show that they became longer, more and more features being recorded, as time went on: whereas this field contained little more than the maker's name, in the 1840s, it later indicated visual appearance of the woods, remarks on the varnish, distinguishing marks, and remarks on conservation state and authenticity. These documents indicates that the workshop consolidated his documentation method in a system, over several decades. A consequence of the increase in the detail level of individual violins is the increase of the granularity of this family in terms of heritage values.

Jean-Philippe Échard, Ph.D., is curator of stringed instruments at the musée de la Musique in Paris (Cité de la musique - Philharmonie de Paris) since 2014. His current research connects organology to cultural, social, economic, material history of musical instruments. His recent contributions mostly relate to the history and heritage values of musical instruments. He is an Advisory Board member of the CIMCIM, and a member of the Galpin Society.

TABULA NON RASA: The Eglantine Table

Michael Fleming

A lack of exemplars is an important impediment to the study of any type of instrument. Typically it is acute if the object is to study a historical instrument whose initial or principal use was several centuries ago. In such cases, any advance in knowledge and understanding must rely on other evidence, particularly written descriptions (and other documentary evidence such as inventories, and records of purchases, repairs, customs duty, insurance etc), oral tradition and, whenever possible, images. A similar range of evidence is employed for investigating and understanding historical musical practices for all periods before the advent of sound recording.
This paper explores the primary evidence offered by the Eglantine Table, a magnificent piece of furniture whose large top surface (nearly four square metres) is prodigiously inlaid with strapwork, heraldry, and figurative imagery including botanical, gaming and writing items. Its musical inlays comprise several identifiable and carefully depicted pieces of music, and 15 musical instruments. It was almost certainly made in London in the late 1560s. Beyond being the unique piece furniture of this nature in England, this makes it particularly interesting and valuable to organologists because, compared with Italy and other European countries, few images that were both made in late 16th-century England and show musical instruments, survive.
The table was owned by (and likely made for) Elizabeth Shrewsbury, now generally known as Bess of Hardwick, who was the richest woman in England, apart from the Queen. Bess applied a great deal of thought, time and money to her physical environment and its contents, paying considerable attention to what visitors to her properties would see and what they would understand from it. Do the table inlays therefore picture and report the musical instruments she knew, and the musical activity in her household? This paper explores the complexities of the answer, with a particular focus on the differences between the way the various instruments are portrayed, and the implications for how useful they are as a source of information about those instruments and their use.

Michael Fleming has predominantly made and researched English viols and related matters, especially iconography. He has published widely including in the Galpin Society Journal (which he edited for several years), the Viola Da Gamba Society Journal, Early Music, and elsewhere, including contributions to standard reference works. The topic of his most recent book (co-edited with Christopher Page, published 2021), Music and Instruments of the Elizabethan Age: the Eglantine Table is the focus of this talk.

Prince Günther's Wind music in Sondershausen

Heike Fricke

In 1801 Prince Günther von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen founded a wind band, a so called "Harmoniemusik”, for which he hired the clarinetist Simon Hermstedt as a concert master. The music-loving prince soon not only took lessons with Hermstedt, he even sent him to Gotha to Louis Spohr: with a lavishly endowed commission for a clarinet concerto in his pocket. Spohr's important C minor concerto thus provided the initial spark for Hermstedt's career as a soloist. In addition, the prince maintained close contacts with similar projects, for example with the clarinetist Franz Tausch, who had founded a conservatory for wind instruments in Berlin. From a series of concerts in private circles, the 'Musikalische Versammlungen' , Tausch developed a 'Conservatorium der Blaseinstrumente' in which, following the example of the 'sing-Akademie zu Berlin' , dilettantes came together to make music. The goal was to promote the level of training and instrument making, especially of the clarinet, but also of other wind instruments. At the same time, Tausch's venture reflects the entrepreneurial spirit of a court musician finding his place in a changing bourgeois urban society. ' The institute may boast of counting the most excellent of our local artists on the various wind instruments among its number of participants, thus giving music lovers the opportunity to develop their fortunate talents more and more' he writes. Tausch thus brought together aspiring bourgeoise and aristocratic amateurs with professional musicians, an initiative that was entirely to Prince Günther's taste! For these new, interesting formations of domestic music, appropriate playing literature has now also been created. In this context, also the bass horn was developed as a sonorous foundation in the low register - in close cooperation between Tausch and Prince Günther.
The clarinet of the prince had been preserved for a long time in the hunting lodge ' Zum Possen' before it disappeared from Sondershausen during the Second World War. What a sensation when now the clarinet of the prince could be found again and acquired by the Musikinstrumentenmuseum der Univesitdt Leipzig. This was the occasion for further research on the history and cultural environment of the prince. In connection with this research, Simon Hermstedt's clarinet was also found and was available for detailed examination, which this paper presents. Finally, it will be presented how research results on the clarinet are collected, managed and made available to the general public in the DIGITAL ORGAMOLOGY research center at Musikinstrumentenmuseum der Universitdt Leipzig.

Heike Fricke works and teaches at the Forschungsstelle DiGITAL ORGANOLOGY at Musikinstrumentenmuseum der Universitdt Leipzig, where she is conducting the research projects TASTEN and DISKOS. She studied musicology and journalism at the Freie Universitdt Berlin and holds a Ph.d. in musicology. She worked with the musical instrument museums in Berlin and Edinburgh and was awarded an Andrew. W. Mellon fellowship in art history by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Heike published articles in MGG, New Grove, Lexikon der Holzblasinstrumente and wrote several books. She is the editor of the German special magazine rohrblatt and the CIMCIM Bulletin.

New light on the career of John Chappington, Elizabethan organ-maker

Michael Gale

Perhaps the most industrious member of a well-established Devonshire family of organ-makers, John Chappington (d.1606) is known to have completed work at Westminster Abbey, Magdalen and New Colleges, Oxford and numerous other institutions across provincial southern England. But although Chappington's extant will reveals that he lived out his final years in the Hampshire city of Winchester, little else has been firmly established about the chronology and trajectory of his career path so far.
During the course of my broader study of the music profession in early modern Winchester, several previously underexplored documents have shed new light on Chappington's life and work. Providing information about his living arrangements and status within the urban fabric of Elizabethan Winchester, they also elucidate aspects of his professional strategy, using Winchester - within easy reach of London, Oxford, and important cathedral cities such as Salisbury and Chichester - as a central hub from which to offer his (unavoidably peripatetic) professional services. These archival discoveries not only reveal more about Chappington's trade activities, but also show how he was firmly embedded within established social and professional networks with other musicians, most notably local 'singingmen' (who often also worked as organists and taught choristers, using keyboard instruments as educational aids).
During the period c.1560 to c.1640, there was a good deal of human traffic between Winchester, Salisbury and Chichester, with itinerant singers moving fluidly between posts at their cathedrals and other well-funded ecclesiastical institutions. This paper reveals how Chappington traversed those same paths and argues that some of his trade commissions - e.g. at New College, Oxford (1597) and Chichester Cathedral (1602-3) - may well have arisen due to his ties with other professional practitioners in situ (rather than merely his close geographical proximity). Overall, this paper is a first attempt to reconstruct Chappington's biography in new depth; more generally, it offers an unusually rich snapshot of the life and work of an all-too-often obscured figure from early modern provincial England: the artisan instrument-maker.

Michael Gale is an Associate Lecturer and Honorary Research Associate in Music at the Open University. His doctoral research (University of Southampton, 2014) explored lute instruction and constructions of social status in England, c.1550 - c.1640, and his broader interests concern the development of the music profession in early modern England. He has contributed to numerous journals including Early Music, Current Musicology, The Lute: Journal of the Lute Society, and Historic Brass Society Journal.

El son del purgamẽo: The Rabab in the Cantigas de Santa Maria and its Reconstruction

Thilo Hirsch

The Cantigas de Santa Maria, written between ca. 1264 and 1284 on the commission of and with the collaboration of Alfonso the Wise, are among the most important sources of the Middle Ages, in respect both to music and music iconography. Of the four surviving Cantigas manuscripts, two have numerous miniatures, although the underlying concept is completely different. In Codex E (Códice de los músicos), the division of the 416 cantigas into groups of ten is underlined by 40 miniatures each depicting one or two musicians (with a total of 40 different types of instruments). Among them are three two-stringed bowed rababs with a parchment top. The full-page miniatures of Codex T (Códice Rico), in contrast to the catalogue-like arrangement of musical instruments in Codex E, are illustrations of the action described in the song texts in several successive comic-like picture fields. Although proportionally far fewer musical instruments are depicted, they are shown in a narrative context and therefore contain an additional level of information. For example, a rabab is played here together with various other instruments.
The aim of this lecture is to show what organological and performance-practical information about the rabab can be gained from these representations and their medial context, and how they relate to the written Arabic and European sources. For the reconstruction of the instrument, historical and contemporary ethnomusicological sources from Morocco were also included, since the rabāb played in the moroccan andalusi music is very similar to the medieval instrument in many respects. Finally, on the basis of a first reconstructed rabab prototype - in connection with the preserved cantigas melodies - the musical possibilities and performance-practical impact of the use of rababs in the music of the (Spanish) Middle Ages are discussed and demonstrated.

Thilo Hirsch studied viol and singing at the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis (SCB) and musicology at the University of Bern. Between 2007 and 2015 he was co-project leader of several Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) research projects at the SCB. Since 2019 he has been project leader of an SNSF research project at the Bern University of the Arts on the topic “Rabab & Rebec of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance and their reconstruction” (

The case for identifying Daniel Herz (1618 - 1678) as the maker of an anonymous Southern German harpsichord

Andreas Holzmann

The harpsichord Mu 78 in the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum in Munich is one of the few stringed keyboard instruments of Southern German or Austrian origin to survive from the 17th century. Featuring lavish decoration and highly sophisticated technical properties, the harpsichord has been the subject of several in-depth analyses in recent decades. However, due to the lack of any identifying signature or date on any part of the instrument, the harpsichord's place of origin and the identity of its maker remain undetermined. Constructional details suggest a skilled craftsman from Southern Germany or Austria who might have built the instrument for a wealthy customer.
The aim of the paper is to show that a number of aspects of the Munich instrument's design and technical characteristics indicate that it was built by the organ maker Daniel Herz (1618 - 1678), one of the most renowned organ makers in the Tyrol region during the 17th century. Born in Munich and the son of a cabinet maker, Herz resided in several locations in the Tyrol and repaired, renovated and built more than 40 organs in Southern Germany, North and South Tyrol and the Trentino region. Archival sources show that he also built harpsichords, but unfortunately no stringed keyboard instrument signed by Herz is known to us today. In 1655, Herz was appointed Court Organ Maker in Innsbruck. An inventory of musical instruments of the Innsbruck Court Chapel from 1665 mentions a harpsichord made by Daniel Herz, which might have had the same properties as the Munich harpsichord Mu 78. Comparing features of the Munich instrument with details in several of the extant organs built by Herz reveals a number of similarities, including matching characteristic carvings of the draw stops, carved ornaments and the use of ripple mouldings. Another strong indication of Herz being the originator of the harpsichord is the meticulous labelling of the key levers and jacks, with letters and digits almost identical to the labelling of various parts and pipes of extant organs built by Herz. By investigating these and other individual and characteristic features of the Munich harpsichord and several of Herz's organs, whilst also taking archival sources into account, we can conclude that there is substantial evidence that the maker of the hitherto anonymous harpsichord Mu 78 of the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum was Daniel Herz.

Andreas Holzmann works in the music collection of the Tyrolean State Museum in Innsbruck. After studying translation and musicology, he completed his doctorate in musicology at the University of Innsbruck in 2021 with a thesis on cultural transfer in the context of historical stringed keyboard instruments in the Tyrol region. In addition to his research work, he is a freelance tuner and technician of harpsichords and fortepianos.

Perspectives of 3D Printing for Historically Informed Playing: the case of Jacques Martin Hotteterre's E.999.6.1 traverso from the Musée de la musique collection

Marguerite Jossic, Lidia Chang, Claudia Fritz, Olga Kannavou, Sebastian Kirsch, Stéphane Vaiedelich and Thierry Maniguet

The playing of historical woodwind instruments is incompatible with the conservation practices protecting museum collections because of the hygroscopic constraints generated by the musician while playing. Faced with this situation, the Musée de la musique in Paris regularly produces facsimiles, which can be played during concerts and cultural events.
We propose the comparison of two approaches to the production of copies of a traverso attributed to Jacques Martin Hotteterre (c1707-1727): the traditional method of commissioning a wooden facsimile by a contemporary maker, and the newer method of 3D printing a facsimile out of polymer materials. The latter approach raises legitimate questions about the degree of fidelity to the original instrument in terms of timbre, playability, and other musical qualities. This paper proposes to provide some initial answers by means of an acoustical study of the material influences on the instrument sound, and psycho-acoustic tests performed with professional musicians. More specifically, it aims at (i) evaluating the influence of the materials used in 3D printing on the acoustical response (input impedance) of the instrument, by measuring the acoustic dissipation factor of wooden tubes, polished and oiled according to the makers practices in the 18th century, and of tubes made with different 3D printing technologies (ii) characterizing the differences perceived by professional musicians between the two instruments, using psychoacoustics tests performed in live listening and playing situations. The study suggests that the acoustic dissipation produced by 3D printed polymer surfaces is comparable to that encountered in traditionally polished and oiled wooden instruments. The results of the psychoacoustic listening and playing tests, revealing how professional flutists qualify the two proposed facsimiles, will also be presented. This study reveals new possibilities for museums, musicians, and researchers for engaging with historical woodwinds, and offers new perspectives for the dissemination of historical and musical knowledge and practices.

Marguerite Jossic is a researcher working at the laboratory of the Musée de la musique in Paris. Her research activities include the development of tools from the fields of physics and mechanics, in order to serve the documentation, the preservation and the restoration of cultural heritage musical instruments. Her work aims to enrich the material history of the French national collection, and the evolution of instrument making skills through history and places.
Lidia Chang is an Adjunct Assistant Professor at Queens College, CUNY, and also works as a freelance flutist. She holds Master's degrees in Historical Performance (Baroque flute) and Musicology, and has recently completed a PhD in Musicology at the CUNY Graduate Center. Her primary research focus is on the intersection of music praxis, print culture, gender, and organology in the long eighteenth century.

From Solitude to Sociability - The 11-course theorboed Lute and the Viennese Lute Concert during the 18th century

Sebastian Kirsch

As soon as the lute was introduced into European musical culture it became one of the most popular instruments for domestic music making. During a period of experimentation with different tunings in the 17th century especially in France, the lute was mostly used as solo instrument for a small, exclusive audience. By the end of the 17th century, the 11-course lute in accords nouveaux-tuning was established, but the fashion in France was on the decline. Vienna became the new centre for lute music and a new musical style was developed there as well a new lute type.
The artistic taste of the Habsburg court was dominated by the Italian style when the French lute was adopted in the Habsburg Lands. Austrian composers soon began to mix the French lute style with features stemming from the Italian opera tradition and traditional folk melodies resulting in the development of a distinctly Habsburgian musical style.
Not only was a unique style developed, but also a distinctive musical genre. Around 1700, the Viennese lute concert was established, which remained a unique phenomenon in the history of the repertoire for plucked musical instruments. It is less a solo concerto in the Italian style, in which a solo instrument is accompanied by an ensemble, rather this genre emerged in order to make solo lute compatible with other instruments and create a more social situation of domestic musical practice. Music for solo lute, which used to be considered a whole consort in and of itself,
was therefore transformed into chamber music.
Eventually, these musical developments resulted in experiments with instrumentation and the invention of a new lute type in order to create a sound ideal that includes the unique sound of the lute. Mostly unnoticed by organological research so far is the 11-course Austrian theorboed lute. Only four examples of this instrument type are known today. Their technical features and practical disposition make it likely, that it was developed for the use in the Viennese lute concert. All extant examples are transformed older lutes which connects them to the culture of appreciation of old instruments.
The presentation will give a short introduction in the PhD project concerning the reuse and adaptation of old lute instrument and will focus on the theorboed 11-course lute, its use in the lute concert and the lute trade in Vienna in the first half of the 18th century.

Sebastian Kirsch holds an M.A in Literature and Art History as well as a Diploma in Conservation. He was project manager at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg of the research project MUSICES (2014-2018). As a research fellow at the University of Leipzig (2018-2020) he started his PhD in Musicology, which is co-supervised by the Royal College of Music. In 2020, he joined the Laboratory for research and restoration at the Musée de la musique, Paris.

The C-Attachment for Cornets, a Convenience for Domestic Music Making

Sabine Klaus

The cornet, literally a small horn (cor), already had crooks for different nominal pitches before valves were added. A multitude of shanks and crooks, enabling the cornetist to play in different keys without transposing, remained a staple of the cornet à pistons with Stölzel valves into the second half of the nineteenth century. By the 1860s, when the Parisian cornet with Périnet valves became popular everywhere, the practice of interchangeable shanks and crooks initially remained in place, but gradually diminished. After the turn of the twentieth century the B♭ cornet with fixed leadpipe was introduced in the United States, and shanks and crooks all but disappeared.
The B♭ cornet with fixed leadpipe, used in brass bands and other wind ensembles, posed a problem for domestic music making with the piano, as it required the ability to transpose. Manufacturers were quick to realize this obstacle and revitalized an old idea: the C-attachment, an alternative tuning slide that could be inserted instead of the main tuning slide to raise the nominal pitch from B♭ to C. This allowed the cornetist to play directly from a piano score or in church with an organ without transposing.
This brief history of the C-attachment for cornets will trace the development of the device from the cor solo for the professional horn player to becoming an indispensable aid for the amateur cornetist, who could then make music at home with the piano.

Sabine K. Klaus is the Joe R. and Joella F. Utley Curator of Brass Instruments at the National Music Museum and Professor of Music at the University of South Dakota in Vermillion. Recipient of the American Musical Instrument Society's Frances Densmore Prize (2000) and Nicholas Bessaraboff Prize (2014), and the Historic Brass Society's Christopher Monk Award (2017), she is the author of the book series Trumpets and Other High Brass (volumes 1 - 4 published in 2012, 2013, 2017, and 2022).

The Conservatoire Model Contrabassoon by Buffet Crampon: Three Exemplars, c1885-1906

James Kopp

In the Exposition Universelle (Paris, 1889), Evette & Schaeffer exhibited a new model of contrabassoon. According to Constant Pierre, it stood 2.04 meters tall, projecting over the heads of orchestral performers 'like a tall factory smokestack towering in the sky.' This type was likely used by the Société des Concerts de la Conservatoire to perform Saint-Saëns' Symphony no. 3, for one example, yet no surviving examples or images have been widely known. But three exemplars, all bearing stamps by Buffet Crampon, the eminent Parisian maker, have recently been identified.
The earliest of these is a prototype in a private collection in France, now incomplete and showing signs of experimentation. A second, well-preserved exemplar, datable by its serial number to 1906, is a recent acquisition by the Musical Instrument Museum in Phoenix (Arizona, USA). Its appearance has prompted reattribution of a third exemplar, nearly identical though stamped 'Martin Frères / Paris' (Crosby Brown Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York); its serial number is attributable to Buffet Crampon and datable to 1893/4.
This model is a late flourishing of the so-called Viennese contrabassoon, seldom produced after 1850. In contrast to the Viennese pattern, however, it has a fully covered and chromatic key system and reaches one tone lower, to C1 (written C2). In 1900, Buffet Crampon exhibited a metal contrabassoon acoustically based on Heckel's compact model of 1879, though with French fingerings. In 1905, Evette & Schaeffer (alternate name of the same firm) introduced a similar model in wood, essentially the model used in France today.

James Kopp is the author of The Bassoon (Yale UP, 2012) and many articles in GSJ, JAMIS, Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (Oxford UP, 2014), Lexikon der Holzblasmusikinstrumenten (Laaber, 2018), and other journals. He is editor of Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society and a player of the contrabassoon as well as historical and modern bassoons.

The Harps of Czech instrument maker Alois Červenka

Daniela Kotašová

In his time, Alois Červenka (1858-1938) was probably the only professional manufacturer of pedal harps in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. He built 140 instruments during his life. He continued the work and invention of Sebastien Erard, the French instrument maker, in which he improved the mechanism with some new construction elements. Červenka's double-action pedal harp from the period before 1887 (called swan), which is today a highlight of the permanent exposition of historical musical instruments in the Czech Museum of Music, represents the first preserved piece from the workshop of the first and most successful Czech harp maker. Despite the fact that the family tradition of harp making has been very rich, reaching from the beginnings, represented by Alois Červenka, more or less until present days, it can be concluded that, viewed from the 21st century, Červenka and his children have been the first and so far also the last Czech harp-makers' generation.

Daniela Kotašová is a curator of the musical instrument collection at the National Museum - Czech Museum of Music. She studied musicology at the Faculty of Arts of the Charles University in Prague and she completed study internships at three German cultural institutions. She is a research specialist in string instruments and in the history of musical instrument making in the Czech lands. This year she will complete a publication on the harp collection in the National Museum in Prague.

The Stewart Symonds Collection Lyraflügel: Examining its Attribution to F. A. Klein

Elly Langford

Prevalent in Berlin during the period c.1825 - 60, the Lyraflügel (or Lyraklavier; in English, lyre piano) was one of the last types of upright grand piano produced in Continental Europe for a bourgeois market. The Lyraflügel is characterised by its distinctive lyre-shaped case, evoking the Biedermeier style that permeated the middle-class reception rooms of post-Napoleonic Germany. Between sixty to seventy Lyraflügel survive in musical instrument collections across Europe, North America, and Australia. They represent the work of around fourteen piano makers active in Berlin during the middle two quarters of the nineteenth century. Lyraflügel by Johann Christian Schleip (1786 - 1848) and instruments attributed to F. A. Klein (fl.1851 - 80) make up the majority of these examples. Yet literature exploring the history or relevance of the Lyraflügel is scarce. Any detailed discussion of the instrument's design or technical development appears sporadically within larger historical investigations of German musical instrument design and manufacture. For example, Herbert Heyde (1994) delves into the instrument's technical development whilst examining the economic, educational, and technological history of musical instrument makers in Prussia. Beyond this, a sense of broader awareness of the Lyraflügel tends to be limited to its association with a domestic music-making context, and its Neoclassical morphology.
The Stewart Symonds Keyboard Instrument Collection at the Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts (WAAPA) in Perth, Australia, houses the country's only known example of a Lyraflügel. Unrestored and appearing in a mostly original state, this Lyraflügel (Catalogue No. 19) bears a nameplate inscribed “F. A. Klein in Berlin”. There is contention between published and unpublished sources as to its date of manufacture. Comparisons of extant Lyraflügel attributed to Schleip and Klein have resulted in calls to investigate the veracity of Klein-attributed instruments. In particular, Heyde (1994) and Hubert Henkel (1994, 2000) question whether or not Schleip manufactured such instruments for Klein, or Klein's instruments were close copies of Schleip's design. Using the Symonds Collection Lyraflügel as a catalyst, this paper explores the issue of attribution in relation to instruments bearing Klein's name. Drawing variously on historical evidence regarding Schleip's and Klein's activities, organological data from extant Lyraflügel, and new evidence from the Symonds Collection instrument, this paper provides insights into the design history and attribution of Lyraflügel.

Elly Langford is a PhD candidate at the Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts, Edith Cowan University, Australia. Her doctoral research into the history of the Lyraflügel and its role in contemporary collections of musical instruments is funded by the Feilman Foundation. Elly holds a Bachelor of Music (Honours) from the University of Newcastle, and a Master of Music (Musicology) from the University of Melbourne. She specialises in historical organology with a focus on keyboard instruments.

The flageolet and recorder in late seventeenth-century England

Douglas MacMillan and Isobel Clarke

Following the Restoration of the English monarchy in 1660 music-making began to flourish in the court, the church, and - of particular importance within in the context of this conference - the private home. Instrumental music assumed considerable importance and, in this paper, we will discuss the roles of the flageolet and the recorder at a time when instrumental music-making gained popularity as a domestic activity.
The English government servant, diarist, and amateur musician Samuel Pepys (1633 - 1703) lived at a time when the flageolet was a popular amateur's instrument through the years when the Baroque recorder also began to flourish in England. Pepys played both the flageolet and the recorder: our paper will outline his experience with both instruments and extracts from his diary will provide a contemporary reflection of the instruments' role in musical and social praxis.
We will discuss the organology of the flageolet, outline its pedagogy, its limited repertoire, and the reasons for its ultimate decline into obscurity by the end of the seventeenth century.
Pepys became entranced by the sound of the recorder in 1668: our paper will examine the organology of the instrument, noting contemporary comments from instruction manuals, and survey the growing repertoire for the recorder as the seventeenth century gave way to the eighteenth. In particular, we will compare the recorder and the flageolet in terms of their suitability for use in concerted music, emphasising the predominance of the alto recorder in unaccompanied pieces, sonatas with basso continuo, and in music for the theatre. Again, contemporary opinions will be quoted to evaluate the two instruments' popularity and usage.
Our paper concludes with an examination of late seventeenth-century English repertoire assigned to the flageolet and recorder. Particular attention is given to the organological features of the flageolet that contributed to its obsolescence, and to those of the recorder that ensured its continued use in the music of the English high Baroque.

Isobel Clarke and Douglas MacMillan are music historians and recorder players. Isobel has pursued doctoral studies at the Royal College of Music on seventeenth-century recorder playing practice: she teaches at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama and is also a book buyer and seller of rare volumes. Douglas holds doctorates in organology from the University of Oxford and the Royal College of Music. Douglas and Isobel perform together as Duo Oriana.

Camille Saint-Saëns and Wind Instruments

Fabien Guilloux and Emanuele Marconi

Camille Saint-Saëns' (1835-1921) long artistic career corresponds to one of the most inventive periods in the history of music instruments making: flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, horns, trumpets, and other wind instruments gradually adopted the modern form that we know today and the new families of saxophones, saxhorns or sarrussophones, born from the intuition of genius makers, enriched the sound palette of the orchestra.
It was primarily in the Normandy town of La Couture-Boussey and its neighbouring villages where famous dynasties of instrument makers such as Buffet, Godfroy, Julliot, Martin, Noblet and Thibouville practised their art, that most of these woodwind instruments innovations emerged and that new instruments were mass-produced, initially using traditional methods and later on an industrial scale.
Contrary to the majority of his contemporaries, Camille Saint-Saëns (1835-1921) took a sustained and continuous interest in wind instruments. The catalogue of his work alone is ample proof of this, encompassing some fifty titles for a wide variety of ensembles, ranging from intimate chamber music with piano to more spectacular scores involving wind bands, simphony orchestras and choirs, as well as a wealth of concertante pieces. In addition to these original compositions, more than 120 orchestrations or transcriptions of his own works were published during his lifetime with his permission. For both these reasons, Saint-Saëns is undoubtedly the composer of his generation whose works were the most widely arranged, performed and distributed between the 1850s and 1920s.
He surrounded himself with leading performers, with sometimes conflicting aesthetics and playing techniques, who provided a source of inspiration and enabled him to achieve his sound ideal, by exploiting all the technical possibilities of the winds and their expressive richness. Clarinetists as Louis Dorus (1812-1896) and Paul Taffanel (1844-1908), oboist as Georges Gillet (1854-1920) and Louis Bas (1863-1944), bassoonist Léon Letellier (1859- 1937), hornist as Jules-Léon Antoine, dit Halary (1827-19..), Jean-Henri Garigue (1842-1906) and Henri Chaussier (1854-1914), all collaborated at various levels with Saint-Saëns, and were dedicatees and first performers of its works for solo wind instruments.
Saint-Saëns' attachment to wind instruments is closely linked to the “timbre”, i.e. the “tone colour” or sound characteristics of the instrument, and the possibilities offered by combining the various instrumental timbres with each other. His own works are characterised by a choice of modern instrumentation that respects each individual instrument, together with an innovative and balanced approach to orchestration. He always had a clear idea of the sound he wanted to achieve, and he used the most modern instruments available, recommending the use of specific models for the performances.

Fabien Guilloux, Research Fellow at the Institute for Musicology Research (UMR 8223 - CNRS), devotes part of his work to 19th century French music. Member of the editorial committee of the Complete instrumental works of Camille Saint- Saëns (Bdrenreiter). He has participated in the critical edition of Samson et Dalila (2018), published Quatuors à cordes (2019), the Sonates pour violon et piano (2021) and is currently preparing the Concertos pour violon et orchestre. He is also secretary of the Société Camille Saint-Saëns.
Emanuele Marconi, conservator and curator, is Director of the Le Musée des instruments à vent of La CoutureBoussey, and CIMCIM advisory board member and webmaster. Research interests include the History and Philosophy of Restoration, through the study of the written and sources, and investigating all aspects related to the understanding of the relationship between society, culture, technical evolution, and aesthetic perception, and analyzing myths and symbolism related to musical instruments.

Brass playing at the Moravian settlement at Fulneck, Yorkshire, during the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries

Alexander McGrattan

The Moravian Church was established in 1722 when members of a sect of reformers with its origins in the fifteenth century were offered refuge on the estate of a Saxon nobleman at Herrnhut. Brass instruments were played by members of the congregation at Herrnhut from soon after its formation and trombone ensembles were adopted for religious and ceremonial purposes from the early 1730s. Trombone ensembles were adopted by Moravian communities elsewhere and in the United States the tradition of trombone ensemble playing has survived in certain congregations to the present day.
The Moravian settlement at the Yorkshire village of Fulneck was established in 1743. The early settlers in Fulneck followed Moravian practice of sounding brass instruments on important occasions in the religious calendar and at special events. This paper reports on a preliminary study of the Congregational Diaries (which record details of daily life on Moravian settlements) for the early years at Fulneck and an examination of nineteenth-century newspapers. Newspaper reports reveal that brass playing was a feature of life at Fulneck into the second half of the nineteenth century, and various sources, including surviving instruments that were presumably used at, or associated with, Fulneck, suggest that a trombone ensemble existed there during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

Alexander McGrattan is a freelance trumpet player based in Scotland. He teaches natural trumpet at the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland and modern trumpet at the University of St Andrews. He completed his Ph.D. through the Open University in 1999 and has published articles in Early Music and the Historic Brass Society Journal. He is co-author, with John Wallace, of The Trumpet (Yale University Press, 2011).

A Hierarchy of Instruments in Troubadour Chansonniers: A New Comprehensive Look at Images and Their Implications for the Performance of Troubadour Melodies

Kelli McQueen

The archetypal image of the troubadour consists of a lone singer accompanying their heartfelt love-song with a medieval fiddle, commonly known in scholarship today as the vielle. While there is significant evidence of this practice in the thirteenth century, only three of the approximately 500 known troubadours were remembered for playing the vielle in the pseudo-biographical vidas. Firstly, the vida of Perdigon says that he was the son of a poor fisherman, and knew how to play the fiddle and invent poetry very well. The second troubadour, Pons de Capduelh was a baron and a capable knight remembered for his knowledge of inventing poetry, playing the fiddle, and singing. The third, Elias Cairel was a gold and silver smith who left his trade to become a wandering minstrel, but played fiddle and sang poorly, according to his vida. Of these three, only Perdigon is depicted playing the vielle in the chansonniers.
My presentation asks the following questions: What is the significance of the portraits in the chansonniers? What other kinds of musical instruments are depicted in these sources? What might this mean for the performance of troubadour melodies? After a comprehensive examination of all the images in the troubadour songbooks, I discovered miniatures of troubadours playing fiddles, plucked chordophones like harp and gittern, and one possible percussion instrument. Additionally, the songbooks contain marginalia of a variety of musical instruments. Among these the vielle is the most prominent - suggesting a hierarchy of musical instruments during this period.
Because of the prominence of the vielle, I also examine the tunings found in the treatises “Tractatus de Musica” by Jerome de Moravia (late 13th c.), and the Berkeley Theory manuscript (14th c.) edited by Christopher Page. Jerome de Moravia provides three different tunings for the 5-string vielle, the second of which he describes as capable of playing all kinds of songs and melodies. While much discussed in the scholarship, there is a dearth of direct theoretical application of Jerome's tunings on extant troubadour melodies. The lesser-known Berkeley manuscript, in contrast, gives tunings for a 4-string fiddle, gittern, harp, and psaltery. I argue this tuning suits some troubadour songs better than Jerome's because the number of strings matches the instrument played by Perdigon, and is apropos to the range of the melody and style of his songs.

Kelli McQueen is a PhD candidate in musicology and medieval studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She holds masters degrees in Library and Information Science and Music History and Literature from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Her research interests include poetry and song in the Middle Ages, cultural contact and exchange among the troubadours, and gendered organology. She enjoys playing fiddle, finger-style guitar, and other period string instruments.

A Pa' O Khaya As Informant and Actant: Ethnographic Applications of New Materialism

Christopher Miller

Accompanied solely by khaya (adapted Anglo concertina), Pa' O song traditions give voice to regional histories and interpretations of the Theravada Buddhist canon. Available documentary evidence and personal interviews with musicians suggest, but do not empirically confirm, that the Pa' O adopted the instrument from occupying British soldiers and missionizing Salvation Army officers in the early twentieth century. Traditional ethnomusicological and organological research would seek to build an understanding of khaya performance in the context of intimate Pa' O performance spaces (e.g. private homes, monasteries, archives). Additionally, we may investigate Pa' O music as realized in the broader context of the Bamar-majority Myanmar nation state, which emphasizes representations of loud, outdoor ensembles in order to position Pa' O culture in a less refined light. Alternatively, the emerging philosophical lens of New Materialism offers a complementary frame through which to understand the musicking of khaya in domestic relationship with Pa' O musicians. In the words of Ian Bogost, the goal is to “amplify the black noise of objects to make the resonant frequencies of the stuffs inside them hum . . . to write speculative fictions of their processes, their unit operations . . .” (2012). In so doing, we could aspire, through metaphor, to come to a deeper understanding of the khaya's operation of repertoire, its mechanical functions, and its choreography of Pa' O performers. A shift to an object oriented ontology (OOO) provides an essentially flat ontological framework through which the ethnographic approach to organological fieldwork, organized primarily around the practice of cooperative musicking, may provide a differently nuanced examination and subsequent description of the khaya itself and, partially, in its own terms.

Christopher A. Miller is a PhD candidate in the Institut Ethnomusikologie, Kunstuniversitdt Graz. He has conducted multiple field research, documentary, and archival projects in partnership with the cultural and literary branch of the Pa' O National Organization in Taunggyi, Shan State, Myanmar (Burma) since 2002. His professional positions have included curatorial roles at Arizona State University, Radford University, and the Musical Instrument Museum (USA).

The Precarious Place of the Saxhorn Basse in the Modern Instrumentarium

Arnold Myers, Joël Gilbert and Murray Campbell

The euphonium as used in the British-style brass band and the bass saxhorn have a common origin in the 'saxhorn basse' of Adolphe Sax. Since the early models of Sax and of makers who copied Sax's instruments, the bass saxhorn and the euphonium have undergone limited development. The British-style brass band has in recent times achieved considerable popularity in France, and has been accompanied by the use of modern international styles of instrument rather than traditional French models.
This paper clarifies the confusing terminology surrounding these instruments and addresses the question of whether the French saxhorn basse and the international euphonium have, as some leading French musicians claim, evolved to have separate identities. The paper draws on acoustical techniques to make an assessment of the extent to which the saxhorn basse is now a distinct species, making comparisons with the baritone saxhorn and the French model tuba in 8-ft C.

Arnold Myers is a Senior Research Fellow at the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland and a Professor Emeritus of the University of Edinburgh. He read Physics at St Andrews University and received a doctorate from Edinburgh University for investigating acoustically-based techniques in the taxonomy of brass instruments. He was formerly Director of Edinburgh University Collection of Historic Musical Instruments; he currently researches at the interface of acoustics and the history of brass instruments.
Joël Gilbert† was Directeur de Recherche CNRS in the Acoustic Laboratory of Le Mans University, and a former Head of the Laboratory. He read Physics and Acoustics at the ENS of Fontenay aux Roses and at Le Mans University. He received a doctorate from Le Mans University for investigating acoustics of reed musical instruments. He latterly researched nonlinear acoustic propagation and nonlinear dynamics of self-sustained oscillators, with application to wind musical instruments or industrial set-ups.
Murray Campbell studied physics at the University of Edinburgh. He was appointed to the teaching staff there in 1971, and in 1985 he founded the University's Musical Acoustics Research Group. He is now Professor Emeritus and Senior Professorial Fellow at the University of Edinburgh. He continues to carry out research in musical acoustics, with particular emphasis on the science of lip-excited wind instruments.

The Prodigy Richard Eduard Lewy (1827 - 1883): His Children's Instrument, Career and Musical Family

Bernhard Rainer

In a painting by an anonymous painter, the family of the first horn player of the Vienna Court Opera, Eduard Constatin Lewy (1796 - 1846), is depicted in a domestic musical scene. His wife Johanna and an as yet unidentified boy can be seen reading from a book while Lewy and three of his children are playing musical instruments: The father plays a horn with three Viennese valves, his daughter Melanie (c. 1824 - 1856) plays a pedal harp, and his son Karl (1823 - 1883) plays the piano. Remarkably, his other son Richard Eduard Lewy is depicted holding a horn with only two Viennese valves. Recently, an instrument has been found in an Austrian collection that can almost certainly be recognised as Richard Eduard's children's instrument. In this paper, the two-valve horn, which is one of the oldest surviving horns with Viennese valves, is described for the first time. The career of Richard Eduard Lewy, who later succeeded his father as principal horn player of the Vienna Court Opera and the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, as a child prodigy is also highlighted. Furthermore, the paper focuses on the musical Lewy family - Melanie later married the harp virtuoso Elias Parish Alvars (1808-1849) and Karl became a well-known composer. Several concert tours of the Lewy family and their prominent position in the Viennese concert life of the time are documented by various text sources.

Bernhard Rainer, PhD Born in Zell am See (Austria) - studied musicology in Vienna and trombone in Graz, Vienna, London and Basel. He is senior lecturer at the University for Music and Performing Arts in Graz (historical music theory) and also lectures at IES abroad Vienna (historical performance practice). His research focusses on the Renaissance (Orlando di Lasso and the Bavarian Court Chapel, Habsburg Court Musicians) and Romanticism (instrumental and vocal performance practice, early recordings, organology).

The Innovations and Accomplishments of Jacques François Simiot and Johann Heinrich Gottlieb Streitwolf

Albert Rice

The contemporary makers Streitwolf and Simiot worked at about the about the same time, Streitwolf in Göttingen from 1809 to 1837; Simiot in Dôle from the early 1790s and Lyon from about 1800 to 1829. This presentation will compare and contrast some of their innovative and high-quality clarinets, bass clarinets, and alto clarinets.
Simiot was active in Lyon from at least 1800 and perhaps two years before this. As a maker or “facteur d' instruments” he made clarinets and flageolets in Dôle during the 1790s, although his instruments from this period do not survive. In 1803 in Lyon, Simiot completed an inventory of the instruments owned by the deceased music dealer, François Petitjean, and was making quality instruments based on their high prices. In 1808, Simiot published a two-page flyer and fingering chart as Tableau explicatif des innovations et changements faits à la clarinette (Explanatory table of innovations and changes made to the clarinet) advertising an innovative 7-key clarinet with a concealed speaker-key mechanism consisting of a ring covered with brass, silver, or ivory that operates a speaker key above a tone hole located at the front of the clarinet. Simiot also made innovative bassoons and alto clarinets for use in wind bands.
Streitwolf was active in Göttingen from 1809 to 1837 as an instrument maker. At first. he specialized in flutes and clarinets and later made finely crafted instruments including basset horns and bass clarinets. His innovations include: a chromatic basshorn in 1820; a bassoon-shaped bass clarinet in 1828; a contrabass clarinet in 1829; improved English horns during the 1830s; and an improved clarinet in 1832 for the great soloist Simon Hermstedt from Sondershausen. Streitwolf's clarinet innovations include a metal mouthpiece; a screw adjustable barrel; and an oval shaped-resonance hole in the bell.

Albert R. Rice is a clarinetist, author, appraiser of musical instruments, past president of AMIS, and former review editor for JAMIS. A retired librarian and musical instrument curator, he has written five books on the clarinet (Oxford University Press), and a catalog of the Marlowe A. Sigal Musical Instrument Collection (2015). He was awarded the Galpin Society's Anthony Baines Prize of 1999; the AMIS's Bessaraboff Prize for 2011, and the Curt Sachs Award for 2011.

Silent Musical Objects in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-century Italian Homes

Arianna Rigamonti

In sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Italian aristocratic homes, one could find many beautiful objects that embodied musical significance without producing any sound. Paintings and frescos representing musical scenes, pieces of furniture inlaid with musical subjects, knives with musical inscriptions, and ceramic dishes with coded musical marks are only some examples of this kind of objects.
Among them, there were also silent musical instruments. Why building musical instruments that could not make any sound? Instruments made of marble, tortoiseshell, or gold represented symbolic objects of marvel, rather than tools to make music. Their acoustical function was set aside in favour of their extraordinary manufacture, the preciousness of their materials, or their appearance. For their visual attractiveness, such instruments have been retaining their places for centuries in museums and have attracted the attention of scholars that have studied their manufacture and technical features. However, no research has yet assessed the phenomenon of non-sounding musical instruments within their cultural context.
Looking at all these silent musical objects, the proposed paper discusses surprising connections between domestic material culture and music. Through the evaluation of the multifunctionality of such domestic objects, this presentation will shed more light on the understanding of the value of music and musical objects in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Italian aristocratic homes.

Arianna Rigamonti is a PhD candidate in Music and Material Culture at the Royal College of Music, London, as a London Arts and Humanities Partnership (LAHP) Doctoral Studentship Holder. She completed two internships, at St Cecilia's Hall in Edinburgh, and at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. She holds a master's degree in musicology from the Department of Musicology and Cultural Heritage of the University of Pavia and a violin diploma from the Donizetti Conservatory of Bergamo.

Perceptions of timbre; how the Reform-Böhm clarinet is influencing the modern clarinet landscape

Sue Ryall

Despite existing for over 100 years, the Reform-Böhm clarinet is still often considered a curiosity or an exception to the Böhm/Öhler ' rule' ; its origins and characteristics largely unknown outside professional and academic circles. Developed from the Kolbe-Schmidt clarinet, first patented in 1905 and again in 1912, the ensuing 110 years have produced only a handful of articles, most recently Luigi Magistrelli's detailed contribution to the 2007 Colloquium here in Edinburgh. His aim was to compare the Reform-Böhm clarinet with the German Öhler system and show that, anything but an inferior cousin, the Reform-Böhm clarinet is in fact superior to many standard Böhm clarinets and worthy of at least equal standing with the Öhler in matters of timbre, if not of agility. Continuing from where Magistrelli's paper concluded, I will present my research into the instrument's spread across the globe and the journey its current players have made in making the transition to Reform-Böhm. I will consider players' motivations for switching to Reform-Böhm and possible effects of these motivations on the industry of clarinet manufacture as well as on shifting perceptions of how a clarinet should sound.

Sue Ryall spent almost 15 years teaching languages before beginning undergraduate studies in Music Education at the Hochschule für Musik und Theater in Hamburg, Germany. She wrote her undergraduate thesis on perceived timbral differences between standard Böhm and Öhler clarinets and is now extending her work to investigate perceived and physical timbral qualities of the Reform-Böhm clarinet. She is currently studying for a Masters degree with the Open University.

An Evaluation of the Schöllnast Company's Basset horn Manufacture

Robert Šebesta

This evaluation of the Schöllnast Company's basset horn manufacture is in the context of its development in the Central European region. Discussed are technical parameters; the development of the company's business practice including their range of distribution; type of clientele; and prices. Documentation for the assessment is provided by extant basset horns as well as Schöllnast's account books. The interconnection from both sources makes it possible to establish time parameters for the implementation of various construction and design elements. For this reason, both the shipments of instruments and various prices offered are important. The days, month, and years of construction and design changes in Schöllnast's account books outline the time estimates of the basset horn's technical development during the first decades of the nineteenth century. Given the rare occurrence of time data provided with the changes in construction, Schöllnast's first account book constitutes a precious source of information. The following parameters were evaluated in the development of Schöllnast's basset horns:
a) basset horns with and without a book
b) integration of the right-hand joint and the stock
c) bell types
d) the number, design, and configuration of keys
e) chromatic basset register
f) material used
g) variants of the company's stamp
h) Statistical evaluation of production, 1814-1840
i) business practices
For Schöllnast senior the making of a basset horn was obviously a real passion. As a clarinetist he was able to appreciate the sound qualities of this instrument and enjoyed exploring new design solutions. In order to reduce costs, Franz Schöllnast supplied his clients with cheaper 8-key models together with more modern 14- up to 19-key basset horns. The peak of his production is a 22-key model which he made in 1838. Although in the second account book for the years 1839 to 1859, we find almost no records on the production of basset horns, the extant specimens from ca. 1870 with 19-key in a bassoon shape prove their manufacture in the last years of Schöllnast company's existence under the management of his son Johann Schöllnast. It is appropriate to compare basset horns by Franz Schöllnast to contemporary production by elite instrument makers working in Vienna such as Stephan Koch, Johann Tobias Uhlmann and Johann Ziegler.

Robert Šebesta is Slovak clarinetist active in his career as a scholar, teacher and organiser. He studied clarinet and music theory at the Academy of Performing Arts in Bratislava as well as historical clarinet with Eric Hoeprich & Gilles Thomé in Paris. He is associated profesor at the Academy of Performing Arts in Bratislava. As a scholar continuously undertakes research on historical clarinets and basset horns publishing in distinguished magazines such as JAMIS.

Bröderna Moberg: A case-study of Swedish organ restoration, seen through the lens of the SONORA project

Eleanor Smith

Sweden possesses a unique cultural-heritage of well-preserved pipe organs dating from circa 1600 to the mid-nineteenth century. All of this may have easily been lost were it not for the interest of a group of organologists and organ builders in the mid-twentieth century, who were united in their passion for the preservation of organ history and the sympathetic restoration of instruments.
Organ-builders Walter and Harry Moberg were an important part of this forward-thinking group alongside organ historian and consultant Einar Erici, and organologist and antiquarian Bertil Wester. Unusually, the Moberg workshop focussed entirely on restoration of old instruments, and they had an approach to preservation and documentation that was decades ahead of their time.
Their philosophy of organ restoration was as follows (original in Swedish):
“The purpose of preserving old church organs is to produce a complete line of organs from the past, where each preserved organ work should be a stylish representative of its style era and show as much as possible its builder's personal and artistic characteristics, as they were at the time of construction.”
The brothers had a uniquely holistic approach to organ building: not only taking an active role in the day-to-day tasks in the workshop, but also designing many custom tools, creating an “inspection kit” housed in a suitcase (even including a typewriter for writing reports), and spending considerable effort researching the best equipment and techniques for photography as part of their documentation of restoration work. Technical designs for many of these tools are found within the archive, as well as some more informal sketches that give a fun glimpse into their sense of humour.
The Moberg archive sheds light on the relationship between the two brothers, Einar Erici, and Bertil Wester. There are many letters and postcards sent between the group where they share their discoveries and thoughts about different instruments or builders. There are also tantalising snapshots of life outside of the workshop: from formal inaugurations of instruments they had restored, to concerts and even family holidays.
This paper will explore the history of the Bröderna Moberg workshop viewed through the lens of Gothenburg International Organ Academy's Swedish Online Organ Archive project (SONORA): not only considering their forward-thinking restoration practices, but also bringing out a taste of their lives and personalities, illustrated with examples from the recently-digitised archives.

Eleanor Smith is a musicologist and organologist, specialising in the history and development of keyboard instruments ,with a particular focus on the claviorgan. Upon graduating from the University of Edinburgh, she was an Associate Researcher at the Orpheus Instituut, Ghent studying the building practices of the Erard Frères, part of the Beethoven 1803 Erard project. She is now a Research Fellow with the Gothenburg International Organ Academy, working on the Swedish Online Organ Archive project.

A guitar made in Amsterdam, 1760

Jelma van Amersfoort

In the 18th century a lot of music was made in the Netherlands, both in public and in private. Different types of guitars were in use for the accompaniment of singers and for solo playing in the domestic circle: the wire-strung (English) guittar, and the gut-strung five-course guitar. Both types were imported, but also constructed locally. For example, elegant wire-strung ' guittars' by violin maker Johannes Cuijpers have been preserved in several collections. However, until recently it was not known that a five-course (baroque) guitar by a Dutch luthier has also survived: a large five-course guitar from 1760, by Gosewijn Spijker of Amsterdam.
The instrument lives in the collection of Duivenvoorde House, a country house near Leiden with a large collection of historical books and furniture. The instrument has been modified and repaired on at least two occasions, first in the 19th century to convert it to a six single string instrument, and again in the second half of the 20th century.
I have been and still am researching this guitar. Some of the questions I hope to address in my presentations are: How does the instrument compare to other guitars of the time, and what international influences are there on its design and construction? What repertoire would have been played on it?
As part of my research I commissioned a playable replica from instrument maker Jan van Cappelle (Doorn, Netherlands). Together we took very detailed measurements of the original guitar, among others of the thickness of the soundboard. Besides that, I had a dendrochronological analysis done of the wood soundboard. Jan made a technical drawing of the guitar and made the replica itself, using as much as possible materials and techniques appropriate to the time of the original instrument. As part of this collaboration we had to make design decisions on the guitar rose (that was missing on the original, only traces were there), on materials, and on which period of the guitar's life to replicate. In the end these were valuable experiences for both of us.

Jelma van Amersfoort studied guitar and lute in Amsterdam and Manchester. She plays chamber music and accompanies singers. Jelma has a masters in musicology from Amsterdam University and is finishing a PhD at the University of Southampton. She has published in Early Music, in TVNM (the journal of the Dutch KNVM) and elsewhere. She is a member of the Cambridge-based Consortium for Guitar Research. Jelma performs on original 18th and 19th century guitars.

The home organ in West Germany 1958-1989. Theses on design and (economic) history of one of the most successful electronical instruments of the 20th century using the German based manufacturers Hohner and Dr. Böhm

Alan van Keeken

The electronic home organ belonged to the most successful electronic instruments of the 20th century. It was marketed as a hi-fi one-man-orchestra for the domestic space that was made to seamlessly fit into the furniture landscape and musical world of the modern middle-class household. Especially associated with this “user design” were the spinet models first sold by Hammond and Lowrey that early on included automated features like chord buttons and drum machines.
But how could an expensive instrument, based on the pipe organ, become such a success in the post-war home? And what cultural and economic ideas informed the marketing and design choices of the respective manufacturers? Scientific Research and theoretical considerations concerning the economic, cultural and design history of home organs is still relatively scarce, especially concerning studies of single manufactures or countries. Concentrating on the West German Market and two domestic manufacturers - Matthias Hohner AG and Dr. Böhm - my paper aims to formulate theses on the above questions.
The market for home organs in Germany started to catch on later than in the US. Made popular through media appearances and records of virtuosos like Gerhard Gregor, Klaus Wunderlich and later Franz Lambert the “organ craze” started at the end of the 1950s and reached its peak in the early 1980s, when it belonged to the most sold instruments. While US- and later Japanese products remained the preferred choice of customers, also domestic manufacturers, especially the Matthias Hohner AG, took part in the seemingly ever-growing market. A German peculiarity was the success of the Do-it-yourself- or kit-organ, first sold by the physicist Rainer Böhm, who belonged to the pioneers of the trade, having published one of the most read books on the self-assembly of the instrument.
Using internal documents, interviews, trade magazines, records and official advertising material of the respective manufacturers and their top tier models I reconstruct the development of the home organ in West Germany from the 1950s up until the 1980s. Theoretically I draw on science and technology studies and especially Roger Silverstone's concept of the “domestication of media”; the idea that every technology - including musical instruments - has to be in some way adapted to the value system of the family home. A social fact that - as my research shows - also has to be accounted for by manufacturers of home organs.

Alan van Keeken studied musicology, sociology and political sciences at the Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen. From 2018 till 2021 he worked as a scientific assistant for the research project “Musical objects of popular culture” at the rock' n' popmuseum Gronau (Westfalia). He published research papers on music technology. Currently he works as a scientific assistant at the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg in the department of musicology.

The 1632 Ioannes Ruckers harpsichord ' ravalé' by Ioannes Petrus Bull in the 1780s. A doubly valuable testimony to Antwerp harpsichord making

Pascale Vandervellen , Chris Maene and Gregoir Basyn

Between 1580 and 1680, the Ruckers family built many models of harpsichords and virginals. The large rectangular model, combining a virginal with a single or double-manual harpsichord, is one of the most unusual. In his authoritative work on Antwerp's instrument makers, Grant O' Brien lists three examples preserved in the musical instrument museums of Berlin and Brussels. Chris Maene's extensive collection of keyboard instruments actually includes a fourth one whose study has proved to be extremely interesting.
Built by Ioannes Ruckers in 1632, the instrument underwent a “grand ravalement” in the 18th century. In the course of this operation, the case was enlarged and the virginal was separated from the whole body. The instrument now appears as an ' ordinary' two-manual harpsichord. What is exceptional, however, is that the builder who carried out this alteration - most probably Ioannes Petrus Bull (1723-1804) - out of respect for the work of the Ruckers or out of concern for some economy of means, decided to keep the original case built by Ioannes Ruckers in 1632 inside the new case. Part of the decoration on the spine, consisting of oval and rectangular geometric shapes placed side by side, has therefore also been preserved.
Thanks to the various marks left on the original case, a computer model of the plan of the instrument as it was designed in 1632 could be made, although pigments and binders analyses of the soundboard decoration, carried out by the Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage using a new apparatus (MA-XRF), revealed areas of decoration dating from the 17th century as well as some dating from the second half of the 18th century, thus confirming the findings of the organological examination.

Gregoir Basyn first did an internship project at the Chris Maene Workshop in 2013 as an industrial product designer. Afterwards he joined Chris Maene's workshop as his assistant. He is now responsible for doing research and making of digital plans of pianos and historical keyboard instruments.
Chris Maene learned the craft of instrument making in the piano workshop of his parents in Ruiselede, Belgium, established in 1938. He has been avidly building, restoring and collecting valuable instruments ever since. Currently he has collected over 300 unique pianos, fortepianos and harpsichords. Since 2016 the instruments are included in the ' Chris Maene Collection B.V.'
Pascale Vandervellen works in the Musical Instruments Museum (Brussels) since 1995 and is currently in charge of the keyboard instruments. She has conducted extensive research and published several books and articles in this field, including The Golden Age of Flemish Harpsichord Making: a Study of the MIM's Ruckers Instruments which received the Nicholas Bessaraboff Prize of the American Musical Instrument Society in 2019.

The Bach Oboe reconsidered

Stefaan Verdegem and Marcel Ponseele

For Johann Sebastian Bach the oboe was an instrument of choice, for which he wrote a great number of solo parts. Although we know which oboists performed his works during his Leipzig tenure, we don' t know which instruments they used for daily practice. Fourteen surviving Leipzig oboes of the Bach have been located and examined, resulting in a comparative study of measurement data, with some use of digital techniques such as CT-scanning and 3D-printing. This study brings new insights concerning woodwind making in Leipzig in the second quarter of the eighteenth century, but also poses new questions with regard to the authorship of these instruments.

Stefaan Verdegem is a researcher and chamber music teacher at the Koninklijk Conservatorium Brussel. Being a specialist of the nineteenth-century English horn, he has performed and recorded much of its orchestral repertoire on period instruments. At the same time he lectures regularly about the nineteenth- century oboe, and has published articles in The Galpin Society Journal, The Double Reed, Rohrblatt and The Grove Music Encyclopedia. In 2011 he was awarded the ' Darche' prize for his research activities.
Marcel Ponseele is an oboist and oboe maker specialised in historical oboes. He performed with renowned baroque orchestras such as La Petite Bande, The Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra, Collegium Vocale Gent and L' Orchestre des Champs-Elysées. With his own ensemble Il Gardellino he made numerous recordings and toured worldwide. Amongst the many CD-recordings he made, he recorded twice J. S. Bach's Complete Cantatas. As an oboe maker, his instruments are highly estimated by professional players. Marcel Ponseele teaches Historical Oboe at the Royal Conservatory of Brussels, Belgium.

The Berlin Guitars in the 19th Century

Heidi von Rüden

At the beginning of the 19th century, the guitar makers in Berlin developed their very own design. The instruments bear characteristics that, unlike the Viennese guitar model “Legnani”, do not distinguish them as virtuoso instruments The guitars have a small range, the string mensur is relatively long, the fingerboard is wide and very low. The neck is set up, the back is flat and the woods were chosen more for decorative than acoustic purposes. The sound resulting from this construction is weak, quiet, has few harmonics and little sustain. Nevertheless, the instruments were popular and were played not only at home, but were also taken for a walk. Special features in the work of Bachmann, Thielemann, Kursch and Matthes are presented on the basis of the instruments in the collection of the Berlin Musical Instrument Museum SIM PK.

After studying musical instrument making, Heidi von Rüden worked at the Musikinstrumenten-Museum, Staatliches Institut für Musikforschung Preuẞischer Kulturbesitz in Berlin. The restoration and conservation of plucked instruments is part of her field of activity, such as the documentation and organological research of the instruments. One of her last projects was: “Acoustical analysis of stringed instruments without touch”, the development of a method for the reproduction and documentation of important acoustic parameters of guitars as an interdisciplinary collaboration.

Revisiting the 'Social Life of Musical Instruments'

Simon Waters

It is ten years since Eliot Bates's subtle and intelligent 2012 intervention in musical instrument studies (in Ethnomusicology), drawing on Arjun Appadurai's (1986) characterisation of objects as having a 'social life' . He ended his paper with thirteen provocative and apposite questions, characterised as ' rhetorical and practical' , which he hoped would ' contribute to a lived organology that is attentive not just to the vibrancy of living musical styles and musicians, but also to the vibrant life of the material world' , and in particular to the inadequacy of entirely ' human-centred conceptualisations of “performance” and “agency”.'
In this presentation I hope, in a small way, to begin to address the last two of Bates's (compound) questions:
“- How do instrument makers relate to the instruments they make at different stages in the making process, and how do those relations themselves relate to the myriad ways in which instrumentalists relate to instruments? Alternately, how does the pro-instrument mediate between the instrument maker and user?
- How do makers adapt/respond to changes in the available raw materials, construction tools, and instrumental forms/designs available to them and subsequently alter the way in which instruments are made? How far is too far, or in other words, how much can construction techniques, materials, or formal aspects change without resulting in a new instrument?”
I will do so by examining precise examples of making, some historically situated in the past, and drawing on my research on eighteenth and nineteenth century practices of woodwind instrument manufacture and distribution. Other examples will be very recent but driven by entirely contrasting goals: the reconstruction of historically-informed instruments using contemporary 3D modelling and printing technologies, and the adaptation of existing musical instruments for experimental musics which seek explicitly to expose what Andrew Pickering (2013) describes as the ' dance of agency' between humans and instruments.
Some issues which emerge as important in the study include the unstable notions of copies and originals, the accumulation of (often tacit) knowledge from multiple makings, the contrast between the permanence of the ' idea' of instruments and their mutability in the real world, and myths and realities associated with what makers actually do.

Simon Waters joined the staff of Queen's University Belfast in September 2012, moving from his previous role as Director of Electroacoustic Studios at the University of East Anglia (1994 - 2012). He established a reputation as a composer of electroacoustic music for contemporary dance in the 1980s, working with major choreographers and having works performed worldwide. His more recent work is at least as concerned with what people do (musically) as with how things sound. He teaches performance and composition, and has also taught courses in interaction design, improvisation, and music and material culture. He is also preoccupied by instrument making in the broadest sense, which leads him both to build experimental instruments and to research the technologies on which music depends, whether these are historical or contemporary. He has played the flute from the age of seven, and has accumulated an unwieldy but informative collection of such instruments, these being potentially unwitting companions in an extended instance of ' participant observation' .

Social Media and Musical Instrument Research: a case study from a viral video

Daniel Wheeldon

During the 2019 annual American Musical Instrument Society (AMIS) conference in Greenville, SC, USA, I demonstrated my reproduction of a keyed guitar by Mathias Neüner (1810, Mittenwald). A separate demonstration of the instrument was filmed by Dick Boak and uploaded to Facebook, unexpectedly reaching hundreds of thousands of people through various social media platforms. In November 2021 this video was recirculated by Avid, the software developer, and has been viewed 3.3 million times since.
This wide reach has given me opportunity read thousands of comments from people remarking on my reproduction instrument. My 2021 PhD dissertation contains all the comments to Dick Boak's original Facebook video in an appendix (commenter's names are anonymised), and in the body of my thesis I discuss instances where this modern audience unknowingly echoes nineteenth-century assumptions about the origins and uses of the keyed guitar.
In my paper, I will discuss some of the findings of my doctoral work, and the practical research applications for these kinds of data. I will reflect on some of the reasons for the online success of this video and highlight the limitations and difficulties of engaging with social media for musical instrument research.
I have since made a reproduction of a keyed guitar by Matteo Sprenger (Karlsruhe, 1843), and both reproduction keyed guitars will be present for exhibition and demonstration as part of this presentation. I likewise have 3D printed prototype mechanisms which can be handled to help communicate the composition and structure of these instruments. Keyed guitars are an important though obscure part of the history of domestic music, and my reproductions - based on the only two known surviving instruments - offer a unique opportunity for these instruments to be heard.

Daniel Wheeldon is a Training Fellow at the Centre for Data Culture and Society (CDCS) at the University of Edinburgh where he teaches digital research methods. In 2021 he completed his PhD, also at the University of Edinburgh, researching and reconstructing two nineteenth-century German keyed guitars. Daniel is currently chairing the Musical Instruments Resource Network (MIRN-UK), a UK-based subject specialist network whose aim is to support the care and display of musical instruments.

Fashion Prints and Engravings: Sources for the Decoration of Taskin Harpsichords

Lance Whitehead

With the notable exception of Ruckers harpsichords, relatively few pattern books used for the decoration of stringed keyboard instruments have been identified. The growing number of internet platforms devoted to art collections - such as those linked to the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Rijksmuseum, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art - does, however, provide the ample means of revising this. All three platforms have been scoured to trace the possible source material utilized by harpsichord decorators during the historical period. Although an on-going process, the identification of a fashion print plus a suite of engravings used by the decorators of Taskin instruments is noteworthy, since it enhances our understanding of the process of late eighteenth-century French harpsichord making. In addition to the practice of direct copying, the discovery reveals the method of adaptation and borrowing adopted by the decorator's workshop to create a 'jig-saw puzzle of engraved sources' (Geoffrey de Bellaigue). Moreover, the work has revealed new and productive lines of inquiry for the identification of source material pertinent to other Parisian harpsichord makers, such as Blanchet, as well as luthiers, harpsichord, and clavichord makers active in other centres, most notably Hamburg. Missing bird cages, palm trees and canopies will all be revealed.

Lance Whitehead studied music and organology at the University of Edinburgh, followed by renaissance art and nineteenth-century history through the Open University. In addition to teaching music at a prep school in London, he has been a museum curator, research fellow and crime scene investigator. He currently teaches harmony and music history at the University of Edinburgh, edits both The Galpin Society Journal and Galpin Society Newsletter and plays the organ at Polwarth Parish Church.

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This page updated: 17.6.22