Arnold Myers, University of Edinburgh

Pages 14-28 from CIMCIM Newsletter No. XIV, 1989


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When preparations were being made for the forthcoming catalogue of the Edinburgh University Collection of Historic Musical Instruments, cataloguing standards were established. These were found particularly necessary to ensure uniformity of presentation because a number of consultant authors were involved. More importantly, the new catalogue has been designed from the start to be produced using computers to facilitate revision of the data at any time when justified by additions to the Collection or the acquisition of further information about items already held. No satisfactory cataloguing standards could be found in the literature, although a number of published catalogues served as exemplars.

Having, after consultation, established cataloguing standards for a medium-sized general collection of instruments, I felt that these could be generalised and be of use to other museums involved in cataloguing, and could in fact serve as the basis for an international standard for cataloguing musical instrument collections. The rubrics which follow, therefore, are being put before CIMCIM for discussion in the hope that an agreed International Standard may result.

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Cataloguing Objectives

What business are we in ? The music business ? Education ? Conservation ? I suggest we are primarily in the information business and that our contribution to the making of music or to education is to a large extent dependent on our storage and transmission of information. Conservation, the most exacting of our responsibilities, is not an end in itself, but is directed at maximising the inherent information content of museum objects for this and for future generations.

A large element of the curator's work is the recording of that part of the information about museum objects which is not inherent in the objects themselves - provenance, usage, value etc. Added to this are the recorded observations and opinions of experts relating the objects to the worlds of musical practice and scholarship. The typical products of such documentation have been the accessions register on cards or computer and the published catalogue in print and photograph.

I propose that where we deal with a well-defined area of museum activity such as musical instruments, we can standardise our methods to a large extent in order to raise standards (where necessary), improve communication and still allow scope for inspiration, ingenuity and excellence. By selecting the best from each other's methods we can better communicate information for the research of today and better accumulate new information for the benefit of future generations.

The main purpose in compiling the information content of a catalogue of instruments is to relate the knowledge concerning the craftsmanship of instrument making to our knowledge of historical practice in music making. A catalogue is deficient which concentrates only on the physical description of objects (as is common) or (more rarely) on the performance possibilities of instruments. What is it that we appreciate about the great cataloguing masterpieces of the past ? The pioneers, Mahillon, Bessaraboff and Heyde have displayed the greatest sureness of purpose, clarity of thought, accuracy of expression, and awareness of the cultural climate in which instruments originated.

I am proposing today that we should look at the categories of information that we record, with a view to promoting such clarity of thought, accuracy of observation and creating a structure for our records which will facilitate the synthesis of research information in the areas of both lutherie and performance practice. It is this synthesis which makes our requirements different from those of other museum curators.

Our categorisation of information and our structuring of records have to be sufficiently detailed to promote thoroughness in registration and cataloguing and sufficiently simple to be readily intelligible to museum visitors and users of published catalogues. Our methods should be adaptable to the use of collections with small numbers of instruments and to museums without the staff time or expertise to produce scholarly catalogues. At the same time, our methods should be capable of accommodating the most detailed work of collections taking the lead in the production of research- based catalogues or of prestige illustrated coffee-table catalogues.

Any international standard for musical instrument cataloguing must also serve the needs of both large general collections and specialised collections. I suppose our largest instrument museums (or groups of museums sharing a union catalogue) will have to catalogue 10,000 or so objects. Others of us may be faced with more unusual cataloguing challenges - 700 concertinas, 800 marching band instruments or 900 incomplete instruments acquired from a maker's workshop.

These problems are not new, or entirely our own. They have been effectively dealt with by the library profession, who have developed an international standard (The Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules) which is widely used (not only in English-speaking countries). These rules structure the recorded information about published books and other materials into precisely defined fields, with procedures for recording the information in cases capable of differing interpretation. The same book, catalogued by librarians working in different places, will be given identical, or at least compatible, descriptions.

A standardised approach is, of course, made both more possible and more necessary by the adoption of computers and modern data communication methods. The system and methods I propose, however, are not specific to any one computer system or database software. They can be used with any word-processor or even without a computer at all, by those of us still using pieces of paper and cards for primary data recording.

I do recommend, however, the approach we are taking at the University of Edinburgh. This is to separate the recording of information and the production of a published catalogue as far as possible. Our computer files containing both registration and catalogue information are made using the simplest possible structure, using only basic ASCII coded characters and containing no formatting instructions. They are ready either for further editing and data processing in Edinburgh or for transmission to anyone else who can make use of them using any computer system capable of interpreting ASCII codes.

In fact, we are aiming at both a printed catalogue, which will be produced from our basic files by a series of database and desk- top publishing procedures (in the short-term) and at a searchable database (in the long-term).

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If the rules for cataloguing are too detailed, it is to be expected that excessive discussion and delay would occur before agreement was reached, and they would, when published, be less likely to be followed. If the rules are too diffuse, than they will be ineffective. We should accept the fact that we cannot prescribe cataloguing rules that will apply to every single instrument, and that cataloguers will have to approach exceptional cases by following the underlying principles of the cataloguing standards. Standard rules should be hospitable to changes in emphasis and to the introduction of new categories of information if and when any aspects of the description of instruments achieve greater importance.

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Cataloguing Principles

In a catalogue, the needs of the reader should determine the content, presentation and form.

Typical readers of catalogues are players of instruments and instrument makers. The former are interested in the characteristics of historical models and require information which places the instrument in its musical, cultural and social context, whereas makers require different information. Since any catalogue has to be written with the average reader in mind, some knowledge of instruments can be assumed. More detailed information should be given where possible for instruments remote from the cultural starting-point of the anticipated readership. If the content of the collection is ethnocentric, the catalogue will be ethnocentric also.

The information needs of instrument makers are unpredictable and usually demand greater detail of description and measurement. In a catalogue published for general readership we can aim only to provide descriptions of the instruments that will enable the maker to decide whether to purchase a workshop drawing, to write for more detailed information, or to visit the Collection in person. Sufficiently detailed information should be given in the catalogue to differentiate apparently similar instruments in the Collection.

The catalogue can be updated as instruments are added to the Collection and as knowledge is acquired about existing holdings through organological scholarship.

It is assumed that a published catalogue will consist of an introduction, the main body of entries, illustrative material and indexes. The latter should include indexes of instrument names, makers names, places of origin, acquisition numbers, etc.

If practicable, the language of the catalogue should be English, French or German. If the suggested standard field names are used, a reference table can be drawn up in any appropriate languages.

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Cataloguing Procedures

Musical instruments are designed to play music and do not always conveniently fit into the schemes of classification by which musicologists and curators arrange their information. Instruments can be classified according to their place, time and culture of origin, their morphology, their materials of construction, their function (either at time of manufacture or at the time of their most recent regular use), etc. Any classification bringing together instruments which share one characteristic will separate instruments which share other characteristics.

Where appropriate, the catalogue should be arranged in the order of the Hornbostel-Sachs classification tables, as modified by the CIMCIM Working Group on Classification. A supplementary general rule for ordering the catalogue is that similar instruments (e.g. clarinets of whatever keywork) should be listed in order of descending nominal pitch.

Items which can be readily separated and used for their proper musical purpose should be treated as separate entities for cataloguing purposes. Brass instrument mouthpieces, percussion instrument beaters and bows for stringed instruments are in practice frequently used for playing various brass, percussion and stringed instruments: they should be catalogued separately even when associated by manufacture or long usage with particular instruments. Bassoon crooks and bagpipe chanters are somewhat less readily interchanged between instruments, and (together with ephemeral items such as reeds and strings) can be described in the catalogue as playing accessories for the instrument they have been associated with most recently, if any. In all cases, the cataloguer should state whether the accessories are known to be those originally supplied by the maker for a particular instrument, whether they are probably original, or whether they are only possibly original. Non-playing accessories would not be recorded with this group.

An instrument should be described in the functional state in which it left the workshop of its last repairer or, if in original condition, its maker. Any faults, broken or missing parts that have occurred since then can be listed in a Faults field; any opinions about a former state can be given in the Repair history field. For example, if a clarinet was built as a five-key instrument, had a sixth key added later and has since lost a couple of keys, it would be catalogued as a six-key clarinet, the loss of two keys being entered as a fault and the addition of one as repair history.

The system for description of keywork given here is that developed by John Dick, and propounded by him at the meeting of the Galpin Society in Edinburgh in 1986. This does not attempt to give an analysis of the mechanism from the engineering point of view, or to describe the keywork fully, but rather to indicate the facilities offered to the player. Where the system of keywork is common and well described in the literature (e.g. for 8-key flutes or for 5-key clarinets) the fingering is not spelled out in detail in each case. In the case of more complex instruments a detailed description in words would be difficult to write and read: a diagram can be given if within the capability of the computing processes chosen for producing the catalogue. Cases of greater interest or complexity should be illustrated photographically.

Here, as elsewhere in the catalogue, the guiding principle is to describe distinguishing features in more detail while indicating the presence of common features as concisely as possible. Where an instrument requires unusual cataloguing procedures, these should be explained.

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There is a wide variety of practice amongst cataloguers with regard to the publication of measurements. The overall length is traditional in museum catalogues, and it is of use in the case of instruments which are illustrated to give an indication of scale. Many of the measurements sometimes published are likely to be of interest only to an instrument maker, who would for any practical purpose require more information than can be given in a catalogue. Where measurements are of value in providing an indication of playing characteristics, such as drum diameters, trombone bores, guitar string lengths and violin body sizes, these are worth giving.

All measurements should be given in international (S.I.) units. Consequently, physical dimensions will be in millimetres only. Cataloguers should state the degree of accuracy associated with their measurements, whether of length, pitch, or any quantity expressed numerically. If, say, the diameter of a woodwind finger-hole is stated to be 3.25mm, it should be clear from the introduction or statement following the figure whether it is within the range `plus or minus 0.01mm' or `plus or minus 0.25mm'. Where appropriate, the equilibrium temperature and relative humidity at the time of measuring should be stated.

If measurements in units in use at the time and place of manufacture of the instrument are thought to be significant, these may follow the data in S.I. units.

The Helmholtz and other unsatisfactory pitch nomenclatures, although still widely used, should be rejected in favour of the American National Standard nomenclature. The note letter is followed by a number (where possible written as a subscript) denoting the octave. C4 to B4 is the octave from "middle" C to B in the centre of the treble clef; higher octaves are denoted by higher numbers, lower by lower. Thus the A which is commonly 440 Hz is A4. The cataloguer should make clear wherever necessary whether the actual or the transposed ("written") pitch is meant. For regional instruments where international pitch nomenclature is inappropriate, pitches can be given in terms of the ellis (El). The octave number as above (where possible written as a subscript) is followed by the pitch in cents above the nearest C below the pitch being described. Thus the pitch of "middle" C is 4/0 El; 440 Hz is 4/900 El.

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Cataloguing Data Sheet Format

The record for each instrument (or other catalogue entity) is divided into fields. Some fields are required for the description of instruments of all classes; some are required only for the description of instruments in particular classes. For any one instrument, the information required to enter the data in a particular field may be unknown, or that field may be inappropriate for describing the instrument. In these cases, the field is left blank. When the text is being processed for publication, blank fields can be omitted.

It is unlikely to be necessary to designate fields which would be used in describing fewer than 10-12 instruments in a Collection. This is because there is less need for automatic processing, not because lower standards are required. Thus for types of instrument less well represented in a Collection, most measurements and other details will be entered in the Technical Description field.

If too many fields are used, the database software may not cope. The criteria for recording data in a separate field should be whether the data needs to be categorised for recall in a database system, manipulated as a unit in an editing algorism for publication, or separated for collection management purposes. Acting as a reminder to record some piece of information is not a sufficient justification for designating a separate field.

If the volume of data is too large for inclusion, the most important information should be given, together with an indication that it is incomplete and a reference to the location of the remainder of the data outwith the computer record. This may apply, for example, to the literature references concerning important instruments, or to the detailed measurements of complex instruments.

Where the information given is only the opinion or speculation of the cataloguer, it should be followed by a question mark in brackets (?).

The structure of the record for each instruments is as follows:

A printed catalogue can be automatically extracted from the data in the standard format, and prepared for publication if required by `desk-top' publishing methods. On-line access to the database is also quite feasible. The same data, without further keyboarding and proofreading can be used to generate collection management documentation.

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Abbreviations of the field names have been devised using two or three characters. Only the fields with two-character abbreviations would be used for a published catalogue. The abbreviations have been devised to be as brief as possible while retaining some mnemonic value in English at least.

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Data Entry

Data should be entered following the most appropriate field name, leaving a clear line between each field and terminating the entry for each field with a full stop. Where a field entry runs to several lines, the text should be grammatically correct, not in `telegraphese'. Parts of the field entries (such as the fingering) may, however, be in tabular form.

At the editing stage, it is suggested that the field names given below in square brackets should be removed, so the text of the entry should be complete in sense without the presence of the field name. Where the field name is merely followed by a colon, the name and the colon should be retained when editing.

Some notes on the standard of data and format of entry for each field follow:

AbbreviationField Name: Notes on Data Entry
CLClassification: the Hornbostel-Sachs classification as modified by the CIMCIM Working Group on Classification
AN[Acquisition number]: The Collection's accession or registration number
ON[Original name]: This is the name (or names), where known, of the instrument in the country where it was made or first sold. In the case of transliteration from scripts other than that of the language of the catalogue, the standard orthography used should be cited in the introduction
EN[Common name]: The vernacular modern designation in the language of the catalogue. This may include a conventional designation of size or pitch, such as `half-size violin', `25-inch Kettledrum' or `Bb Piccolo'. More precise measurements and the standard pitch designation will be given in other fields below. In cases where the conventions for naming instruments are confused in general usage (e.g. "Arch-lute" and "Chitarrone") the cataloguer should describe his usage in his introductory text. There is no accepted thesaurus of terms used in the study of musical instruments, so in the case of variants, the choice of name or of spelling should follow the usage of "The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments"
NPNominal pitch: applies to wind and percussion instruments "in" a certain key. On brass instruments, this is generally the fundamental pitch of the tube without keys or valves being pressed or slides extended. On woodwinds other than bassoons, this is generally one tone lower than the `six-finger' note in the lowest register for instruments overblowing at the octave, in the second register for instruments overblowing at the twelfth. For example, the instrument with traditional English nomenclature `Bb Piccolo' has the nominal pitch Ab. If in any special case there is good reason to depart from this convention, this departure should be stated in the catalogue entry and explained in the introduction. If instruments of the class exist in a very wide variety of sizes, a designation of the octave of the nominal pitch should be given, following the American Standard convention. For example, the descant recorder is "in" C5, indicating the note a tone lower than its lowest six-finger note. The designation of the nominal pitch of an instrument does not necessarily indicate the transposition used by its players: the differences between conventions for trombones, Wagner tubas, bass clarinets etc are well known and should be ignored in a catalogue
TS[Type or system]: The principal technical characteristic, relating where possible to an established designation. In general, the type or system is that characteristic requiring a particular technique of the player. For example, `Boehm system', `6-string', `1-key' `hand-tuned ' (timpani), `French fingering', `Thumbplate system' `Valve' (trombone) etc
MKMaker: Give the maker's name directly if the actual maker or workman can be confidently identified. In cases of doubt, use the convention defined by Messrs Sotheby's:
`by' The instrument is in the cataloguer's opinion the work of the named maker. This category also includes instruments made specially for a dealer and originally sold under his name, and where the actual maker is unknown or unidentifiable
`ascribed to' A traditional attribution with which the cataloguer does not necessarily agree
`attributed to' The instrument is believed to be by the named maker in the opinion of the author(s) or the authority(ies) whose literature or certificates are referred to in the Specific Literature References' below
`School of' The instrument is, in the opinion of the `... school' cataloguer, by a follower of the maker indicated, or is in the style of instruments associated with the area indicated
`workshop of' In the cataloguer's opinion, the instrument is executed in the basic style of the maker and possibly under his direct supervision
The instrument is not, in the cataloguer's opinion, by the maker indicated but merely `inscribed' bears his name. In some cases the etc instrument may be a later copy or be modelled after the maker indicated
PL[Place of origin]: The town or district and country should be given if known. Use form in the language of the catalogue, e.g., Prague, Czechoslovakia rather than the form given in any inscription: the latter is recorded separately below
COCulture of origin: The origin of the instrument should be described by cultural tradition, such as that of a particular ethnic group, where possible
DM[Date of making]: in the order day, month, year. For example, `June 1930', `Circa 1810', `Between March 1895 and June 1897'
SNSerial number:
FM[Further information on maker]:
OSOverall size:
The next few fields are use for certain types of instruments only: any one section of a catalogue may use only a selection as appropriate.
LBBody length:
BUBody width, upper bouts:
BWBody width, waist:
BLBody width, lower bouts:
BDBody depth:
S1String length 1:
S2String length 2:
DIShell diameter:
DEShell depth:
NTNumber of tension points: on drums and banjos, for example
NFNumber of frets: the total number should be stated , also the number of these on the belly. Description of fretting systems should be given under Technical Description and any inbuilt determination of temperament, other than equal temperament, should be given under Performance Characteristics
SLSounding length: of wind instruments
BRBore: of wind instruments. The bore of any substantial cylindrical section should be given. The diameter of non-cylindrical woodwinds should be measured at the middle joint. In case of possible ambiguity, the measurement procedures should be explained
REDepth of reed, mouthpiece or crook receiver: in wind instruments
RIDiameter of reed, mouthpiece or crook receiver: in wind instruments
TDTechnical description: This is generally the largest section of data to be entered, including specification of the materials used in making the instrument. Often the exact identification of woods is difficult: the introduction to the catalogue should indicate the degree of precision attempted
Where instruments are designed so that the player's fingers operate keys or other finger-specific mechanisms to allow the sounding of a discrete pitch or set of pitches (as on woodwind instruments), a table should be made to show the principal notated note name obtained by actuating the mechanism allocated to each finger or the mechanism name (e.g. `Patent C sharp'. The details of the mechanical operation of keys, linkages, etc are not necessarily given in the catalogue, and do not belong in this table. Keys are listed as far as possible in order starting with the touchpiece nearest the natural resting position of the finger. The thumb keys on bassoons are listed clockwise, starting from twelve o'clock in the normal inspection position.
L0[left-hand thumb]:
L1[left-hand index finger]:
L2[left-hand middle finger]:
L3[left-hand annular finger]:
L4[left-hand little finger]:
R0[right-hand thumb]:
R1[right-hand index finger]:
R2[right-hand middle finger]:
R3[right-hand annular finger]:
R4[right-hand little finger]:
The next few fields are use for certain types of instruments only: any one section of a catalogue will use only a selection as appropriate.
KHKeyhead type: on wind instruments. There is no need to repeat the word `keyhead'. Phillip Young in "2500 Historical Woodwind Instruments" gives some common flap designs which may be referred to. Herbert Heyde in his Eisenach Catalogue gives in addition some common touchpiece designs, but this is taking the degree of detail further than may be initially practicable
KMKeymount type: The mount and spring types should be entered for wind instruments. There is no need to repeat the word `keymount'. The convention of Phillip Young should be adopted to indicate the attachment of leaf springs:
SATBsprings attached to the body of the instrument
SATKsprings attached to the material of the keys
VTValve type: on brass instruments
IN[Inscriptions]: The text of any inscription should be prefaced by the method of inscription (such as branded, inscribed, carved, engraved, labelled, stamped, written etc.). The text of the inscription should be transcribed in double-quotes. The use of upper and lower- case letters in the original inscription should be replicated; the use of italic or gothic script need not. Line breaks in the original are indicated by a oblique (/). Double quotes and obliques in the original are omitted in the transcription. Any logos or devices are given outwith double-quotes in sequence of line breaks. If the whole inscription is not given, parts omitted should be indicated by `...'. If parts are illegible, they should be indicated by `(--- --)'. The location(s) of any inscription of the instrument should be indicated. In the case of transliteration from scripts other than that of the language of the catalogue, the standard orthography used should be cited in the introduction
DFDecorative features: These should be described in appropriate detail having regard to their significance as information concerning the manufacture or original function of the instrument
PAPlaying accessories: Items such as mutes, capotastos, chin- rests, card-holders, carrying straps associated with an instrument and used in playing should be mentioned here
CS[Case etc.]: Items such as cases, reed-caps, tool-kits, cleaning equipment, tuning hammers, etc associated with an instrument but are not used in playing should be mentioned here
FL[Faults]: Any faults or missing parts which impair the appearance or may affect the performance of an instrument should be described here. Any faults which have been rectified by alteration or repair should only be described in the Repair history field. Any minor, easily rectified hindrances to function (such as missing key pads, broken strings or shortage of hair in bows) may be mentioned in the Memoranda for Curator field below
RH[Repair history]: Any repairs, modifications or other deliberate alterations carried out on the instrument which brought it into its most recent playing state should be described. The cataloguer's speculations about previous states of the instrument should be given here with reasons (such as comparisons with similar instruments in the Collection or elsewhere)
GUGeneral usage of type: Any comment to communicate function may be made here. If a type occurs frequently, it is better to indicate function in the introduction. `Instruments of this type were widely used in British military bands in the late 19th century' would be a typical entry in this field
GRGeneral literature references: References to published descriptions of the class of instrument (not referring to the particular item being catalogued) may be made. Each reference should include title, author, publisher, place and date of publication and the relevant page number
UPUsable pitch: The playing pitch determined by the construction of the instruments, e.g. `Plays at A*4 = 440 Hz' should be given. If the instrument appears to have been made to be used at a particular pitch standard such as "Diapason Normal" (A4 = 435 Hz) or "Old Philharmonic" (A4 = 452.5 Hz) this should be stated. The tolerance in usable pitch (e.g. plus or minus 20 cents) should be stated either generally in the introduction or specifically for each instrument
PCPerformance characteristics: The practicable compass of the instrument where determined by the mechanism or constructional features of the instrument and any specimen-related strengths or deficiencies in the response of the instrument to the player should be given
AW[Association with other items]: A reference should be made to any other item in the Collection directly associated with the item being catalogued. This will be usual for brass instrument mouthpieces, bows of stringed instruments, beaters of percussion instruments, instruments built, sold or used in pairs or groups. Indicate whether association is by design, manufacture, sale or usage, whether longstanding or recent
SRSpecific literature references: Published literature referring to the specific item being catalogued should be cited. Each reference should include title, author, publisher, place and date of publication and the relevant page number. Certificates of authentication may also be cited in this field
IRIllustration references: Published literature illustrating the specific item being catalogued should be cited. Include photographic and radiographic illustration and drawings. Good practice is for workshop drawings to be checked every ten or so years: the date of checking should be given here. Each reference should include title, author, publisher, place and date of publication and the relevant page number
RRSpecific recording references: Published recordings of the specific item being catalogued should be cited. Each reference should include recording artist, date, publishing company and recording publication reference number
SUSpecific usage history: Known usage in a particular orchestra, band, etc should be stated, together with players' names and dates
POPrevious ownership: The names of former owners, collectors and players in reverse chronological order with dates to the nearest year should be given
LNCurrent ownership: The statement of ownership should commence with `Lent by', `Gift of', `Bequest of' or `Purchased'. If a purchase, the names of any person or body providing funds for the purchase should be stated here
CA[Collection assignation]: This field should be used where a donated or purchased collection retains its identity within the Collection as a whole
The following fields are for Collection management use only, and would not form part of a published catalogue. There is no need to finish each of these fields with a full stop.
INDIndex reference: This is assigned by the editor for use in preparation of indexes. It can be the acquisition number, the page number or the column number as appropriate. This will be specific to the program or system used in data handling
SORSorting number: A number is required for computer sorting of the catalogue records into order and is based on the classification and other factors. This will be specific to the program or system used in data handling
PNNPhotographic negative numbers: This is for reference numbers relating to the item being catalogued in the Collection's file of photographic and radiographic negatives
LOCLocation: This field may be used to identify the display case or storage container or to refer to a current loan record
AQDAcquisition date: The exact date of receipt should be recorded
RDERevision dates of entry: the date on which the cataloguer last incorporated new information should be given
AOEAuthorship of entry: The catalogue authors should be given credit in the introduction. The originator of any significant observation and the exact date it was made or revised should be given here
CONConservation record: A summary description and date of any work carried out should be given, referring to full reports. IIC or MDA conservation records should be used and referred to here
MONCondition monitoring: The date of last inspection for condition monitoring and a summary of the report should be entered
CCRCustodial category: in the case of collections where instruments are used in performance or where restoration work is carried out, but limited to justifiable circumstances, the category (1, 2, 3, 4 or 5) assigned to control the usage or the nature of restoration permitted should be entered. See the author's paper `Conservation of Wind Instruments', Venice, 1985
VALValuation: The value for insurance purposes and the date of last assessment may be entered here
MFEMemoranda for editor: Any messages for the editor of the catalogue such as missing data, data whose accuracy is doubted, problems still unresolved etc may be listed here
MFCMemoranda for curator: Any messages for the Curator of the Collection such as minor faults not described in the Faults field, any precautions recommended in handling or using the instrument, and conservation treatment to be considered should be listed here

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ASCII Character Translation Table

General codes for characters outwith the basic range of ASCII codes and standard abbreviations, which can be employed wherever necessary, are listed below. These codes and abbreviations would be replaced by the intended characters when a catalogue was being prepared for publication.
*sharpsharp sign
*naturalnatural sign
*flatflat sign
*Eupper case umlaut
*elower case umlaut
*z or *Zcedilla
*s or *Scircumflex
*1 ... *9subscript 1 ... subscript 9
~xxxx~xxxx underlining or italic

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In addition to the published material cited below, the author has benefited from much wise advice in the preparation of these cataloguing standards. Particular help has been given by Peter Cooke, Dave Stone, Jean Ritchie (all of the University of Edinburgh), Wilma Alexander (of the Scottish Museums Council), Anthony Baines, Herbert Heyde, Jeremy Montagu and John Dick.

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Museum Documentation

  1. Museum catalogues: a foundation for computer processing. / Brian Abell-Seddon. - London: Clive Bingley, 1987.
  2. Museum cataloguing in the computer age. / Robert G. Chenhall. - Nashville: American Association for State and Local History, 1978.
  3. Museum registration methods, 3rd ed. / Dorothy H. Dudley et al. - Washington, D.C.: American Association of Museums, 1979.
  4. A guide to collections records management / Ruth Freeman. - Ottawa: Ministry of Citizenship and Culture, 1984.
  5. A method of museum registration. / John M. Graham II. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Museums, 198... ??
  6. International museum data standards and experiments in data transfer. / Richard B. Light and D. Andrew Roberts. - Duxford: Museum Documentation Association, 1981.
  7. Museum documentation systems: developments and applications. / Richard B. Light et al. - London: Butterworths, 1986.
  8. Information handling in museums. / Elizabeth Orna and Charles Pettitt. - London: Bingley, 1980.
  9. Information policies for museums. / Elizabeth Orna. - Cambridge: Museum Documentation Association, 1987.
  10. A unified approach to the computerisation of museum catalogues. / M.F. Porter et al. - London: British Library, 1976.
  11. Collections management for museums. ? Edited by D. Andrew Roberts. - Duxford: Museum Documentation Association, 1988.
  12. Planning the documentation of museum collections. / D. Andrew Roberts. - Duxford: Museum Documentation Association, 1985.
  13. A code of ethics for registrars. / Cordelia Rose; AAM Registrars Committee. - Museum News, February 1985, 63 (3) p.42-46.

International book cataloguing standards

  1. Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed. London: The Library Association, 1978.
  2. ISBD (M): International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monographic Publications. - London: IFLA Committee on Cataloguing, 1974.
  3. ISBD (G): General International Standard Bibliographic Description: Annotated Text. - London: IFLA International Office for UBC, 1977.
  4. Statement of principles adopted at the International Conference on Cataloguing Principles, Paris, October 1961. Annotated edition with commentary and examples. / E. Verona et al. - London: IFLA Committee on Cataloguing, 1971.
  5. Nonbook materials: the organization of integrated collection. / J.R. Weihs et al. - Ottawa: Canadian Library Association, 1973.

Cataloguing of Musical Instruments

  1. American Standard Acoustical Terminology, S1. 1-1960 of the U.S.A. National Standards Institute (formerly American Standards Association). New York: ANSI, 1960.
  2. Categories of documentation. / Bob Barclay. - CIMCIM Newsletter, 1985, XII p.72.
  3. Compte rendu des activites du Groupe 1978-1979. / CIMCIM Groupe de Travail, Catalogage et Classification. - CIMCIM Newsletter, 1980, VIII, p.33-35.
  4. Catalogue descriptions of instrument keywork. / John B. Dick. - Galpin Society Journal, 1988, XLI.
  5. [Book reviews]. / Lloyd P. Farrar. - Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society, 1983, IX p.112-117.
  6. Die Katalogisierung von Musikinstrumenten. / Hubert Henkel. - In Per una carta del restauro: conservazione, restauro e riuso degli strumenti musicali antichi: atti del convegno internazionale (Venezia, 16-19 ottobre 1985) ... - Firenze: Leo S. Olschki, 1987. p.331-338. - (Quaderni della Rivista Italiana di Musicologica ... 15).
  7. Zu Klassifizierung und Katalogisierung. / Herbert Heyde. - In Per una carta del restauro: conservazione, restauro e riuso degli strumenti musicali antichi: atti del convegno internazionale (Venezia, 16-19 ottobre 1985) ... - Firenze: Leo S. Olschki, 1987. p.17-24. - (Quaderni della Rivista Italiana di Musicologica ... 15).
  8. Grundlagen des natürlichen Systems der Musikinstrumente. / Herbert Heyde. 1975.
  9. Systematik der Musikinstrumente: ein Versuch. / Erich M. von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs. - Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 1914, 4 and 5.
  10. Classification of Musical Instruments. / Erich M. von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs, translated from the original German by Anthony Baines and Klaus P. Wachsmann. - Galpin Society Journal, 1961, XIV p.3-29.
  11. Are computers anything for us ? / Cary Karp. - CIMCIM Newsletter, 1985, XII p.26-31.
  12. CIMCIM computerization, Part 2. / Cary Karp - CIMCIM Newsletter, 1987, XIII p.50-59.
  13. The documentation of musical instruments. / Dieter Krickeberg. - IAMIC Newsletter, Spring 1973, I p.36-38.
  14. Pitch. / Mark Lindley et al. - In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. - London: Macmillan, 1980.
  15. Identification et catalogage. / Claudie Marcel-Dubois et Yvonne Oddon. In Ethnic musical instruments. / edited by Jean Jenkins. - London: Hugh Evelyn for ICOM, 1970.
  16. The problem of nomenclature. / Jeremy Montagu. - FoMRHI Quarterly, January 1981, (22) Comm. 323.
  17. The conservation of wind instruments. / Arnold Myers. - In Per una carta del restauro: conservazione, restauro e riuso degli strumenti musicali antichi: atti del convegno internazionale (Venezia, 16-19 ottobre 1985) ... - Firenze: Leo S. Olschki, 1987. p.221-233. - (Quaderni della Rivista Italiana di Musicologica ... 15).
  18. Fiche organologique CIMCIM. / Denise Perret. - CIMCIM (IAMIC) Newsletter, 1975-76, III & IV p.29-34.
  19. Criteria for the naming of instruments: a response to Comm. 323. / Eph Segerman. - FoMRHI Quarterly, April 1981, (23) Comm. 338.
  20. On the information in instrument drawings. / Eph Segerman. - FoMRHI Quarterly, October 1979, (17) Comm. 232.
  21. What key is an instrument "in" ? / Stuart-Morgan Vance. Newsletter of the American Musical Instrument Society, October 1972, 1 (4) p.6-7.
  22. Standards for instrument plans. / Ken Williams. - FoMRHI Quarterly, October 1979, (17) Comm. 231.
  23. Pitch notation ... / R.W. Young. - Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1939, 11 p.134-139.

Model published Catalogues

  1. Katalog der Blechblasinstrumente. / Dieter Krickeberg und Wolfgang Rauch. - Berlin: Staatliches Institut für Musikforschung, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Musikinstrumenten-Museum Berlin, 1976.
  2. Katalog der Streichinstrumente. / Irmgard Otto & Olga Adelmann. - Berlin: Staatliches Institut für Musikforschung, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Musikinstrumenten-Museum Berlin, 1975.
  3. Catalogue descriptif et analytique du Musée Instrumentale du Conservatoire Royal de Musique de Bruxelles. / Victor. Charles Mahillon. - Gand: Hoste, 1893-1922.
  4. Historische Musikinstrumente im Bachhaus Eisenach. / Herbert Heyde. - Eisenach: Bachhaus, 1976.
  5. Katalog, Musikinstrumenten Museum der Karl Marx Universität Leipzig: Band 1, Flöten Band 2, Kielinstrumente Band 3, Trompeten, Posaunen, Tuben Band 4, Clavichorde Band 5, Hörnen und Zincken
  6. Verzeichnis der Europäischen Musikinstrumente im Germanischen Nationalmuseum Nuernburg, Band 1: Hörner und Trompeten, Membranophone, Idiophone. / John Henry van der Meer. - Wilhelmshaven: Heinrichshofen, 1979.
  7. The Collection of Musical Instruments [catalogue]. / Edited by Sumi Gunji et al. - Tokyo: Kunitachi College of Music Research Institute, 1986. - 320pp.
  8. Twenty-five hundred historical woodwind instruments: an inventory of the major collections. / Phillip T. Young. - New York: Pendragon, 1982.

Some Cataloguing Forms

  1. CIMCIM (1973).
  2. Martha Novak Clinkscale [pianos] (1987).
  3. Ursula Menzel [brass]; presented at CIMCIM Argentina meeting, 1986.
  4. Charles Mould [Boalch harpsichord database] (1986).
  5. Museum Object (A5 card). Cambridge: Museum Documentation Association.
  6. Extracts from a computer database of pianos. / Stewart Pollens. - CIMCIM Newsletter, 1985, 12 p.35-42.

Read at the CIMCIM Meeting, Berlin, 11-17 April 1988.

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© CIMCIM 1989.

This page updated: 7.2.13