University of Edinburgh
The Galpin Society
CONFERENCE ON MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
Meeting organised by the Edinburgh University Collection of
Historic Musical Instruments with the Galpin Society
9-11 July 1999
Abstracts of Papers
Web URL: www.euchmi.ed.ac.uk/gxjta.html
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Full length papers
The main purpose of this paper is to make available, for the first time,
the most recent discoveries concerning the fiddles found on the Mary
Rose, Henry VIII's flagship, which sank off Portsmouth in 1545.
After an introduction to the Mary Rose Trust's archeological work and
methods, the artifacts will be discussed as they relate to other known
chordophones of the period. The fiddles will be illustrated, described,
and considered in their social context, before the paper concludes with
speculations on practical details of possible reconstructions.
The Fydill In Fist: Stringed Instruments from the Mary Rose
Mary Anne Alburger,
Elphinstone Institute, University of Aberdeen, U.K.
Portugal has for many years been overlooked in what concerns its
instruments and music. This presentation gives a synopsis of the
keyboard music existing in the eighteenth century in Portugal, relating
it to the instruments available. The major focus will be given to the
The close cultural relationship between Portugal and Italy allowed the
Portuguese to have access to the first pianofortes made in the world.
The characteristics of these instruments matched the expressiveness of
Portuguese music and culture. Other instruments already in use also had
singular properties that inspired the musicians to make works of a
distinctive Lusitan or Iberian flavour. This presentation is
illustrated by the use of recordings of historical instruments and
The Relation between Instruments and Music in Portugal in the Eighteenth Century
Patrícia Lopes Bastos,
University of Birmingham, U.K.
Recorders from 17th century are often labelled `transitional' instruments,
representing a link between Renaissance consort instruments and Baroque
solo instruments. Typical for the period are soprano instruments, with a
pitch ranging from about modern c" to e", with a narrow, slightly conical
bore; most of these are very thin-walled ivory instruments with a compass
of two octaves and a second. A survey is given of the relatively few
surviving recorders from the 17th century.
Two More Recorders for the Music of Van Eyck
Musikhistorisk Museum in Copenhagen, Denmark
Two recently discovered instruments from Denmark and Scotland will be
presented in detail and the findings will be compared with some of the
previously known instruments of the period. The details discussed are outer
shape, bore profile, finger holes, tuning, fingering, and musical
Of the first generation of Dutch baroque woodwind makers only two
traversos are preserved, by Haka and Van Aardenberg. After 1720 a
rather uniform type of Dutch traverso became populair, most of the
instruments in boxwood (but also in ebony or ivory) and with a relative
wide bore, a small and round mouthhole, widely undercut toneholes and
relative long lower joints. In fact, these traversos of Borkens,
Eerens, Van Heerde, Wijne (etc.) are much more similar than the oboes
and recorders by the same makers.
Dutch Baroque Traversos
Alphen a/d Rijn, Netherlands
Several instruments have (usually three) corps de rechange. The
pitch of the traverso varies between A = 405 Hz and
A = 415 Hz, played with the longest (or with the only)
Three flûtes d'amour did survive, by Haka, Van Heerde and
Hemsing, instruments with different designs and pitches. Two bass
recorders by J. Beuker are late 18th century, showing only few
resemblances with the earlier shorter instruments. The question is:
what kind of music was played on these Dutch traversos?
During the earlier years of the modern clavichord revival, attention was
focused almost exclusively on the study of fret-free clavichords. More
recently there has been a growing and enthusiastic interest in the
musical possibilities of the diatonically fretted instruments which were
made in Germany from the 1720s onwards, most particularly those by
Hubert. There is, however, considerable evidence that diatonically
fretted instruments were already well known by the end of the 17th
century, and furthermore it appears that the evolution of the diatonic
fretting system may be traced back to the 15th century and before. The
existence of diatonically fretted instruments during the 17th and early
18th centuries must be recognised in any speculation as to which
keyboard works are `suitable' for the clavichord.
The Diatonically Fretted Clavichord before 1722
Fig Tree House Musick, Wiveliscombe, Somerset, U.K.
[abstract to follow]
Underlying Causes of Serpent Behaviour and Misbehaviour
University of Edinburgh, U.K.
The importance of St Cecilia's Hall and the Edinburgh Musical Society in
the cultural life of Edinburgh, Scotland and Britain during the second
half of the 18th century is frequently underestimated in historical
accounts of the period. Drawn from archival sources, this paper
assesses the significance of the musical activities which flourished
within Robert Mylne's elegant building between c 1760-1800, with
particular emphasis on the repertoire performed, the number and
identities of the performers and the instruments purchased and used by
members of the Society.
St Cecilia's Hall: its Musicians and Musical Instruments in the Eighteenth Century
University College Northampton, U.K.
Guitar makers inhabit a unique world formed out of the intersection of
material, social and cultural worlds. In this overlapping world they
function not merely as constructors of cultural artefacts, but as
moulders of social practices, and as agents in the negotiation of
identity, status, power, and control. They shape aspects of musical
practice and musical identity in a variety of cultural settings.
Constructing Culture: Guitar Makers in Spain
The Open University, U.K.
The personality and life experience of the owner is imprinted upon the
guitar workshop and its layout which is also arranged to create an
efficient workspace. The workspace is decorated with memorabilia, from
personal photographs to signed portraits of famous guitar players, while
the animated discussions, negotiations and banter between the maker and
his customers bring the scene to life. It is the physical and social
dynamic that emerges within this cultural spaces that is of central
interest here, the aim being to reveal the forces and mechanisms that
operate within this guitar world. Furthermore, the book sets out to
provide an understanding of the social relations involved in the
material practices of guitar construction.
This study documents (1) the way in which guitar makers go about their
daily routine, their aims and objectives, how they talk about their
work, as a craft, science and/or an art, and how they describe their raw
and worked (`cooked') materials, (2) the way in which others relate to
and talk about guitar makers and `makes' of guitar; (3) the life history
of guitar makers which in most cases involves the inheritance of a
guitar making tradition handed down through many generations of a guitar
making family; (4) a study of the guitar as an icon within Spanish
This paper is a summary of the work I have carried out to date, an
overview of a rich ethnographic study of the role of musical artisans
in Spanish culture and the relationship between guitar makers and the
contemporary world of business, commerce, advertising, tourism, and the
music industry. Changes in the material practices of guitar making
brought about by these cultural forces, such as developments in the
technologies that surround the manufacture of musical instruments, are
studied in the light of a changing and growing literature in organology,
ethnomusicology, the anthropology of music, and the ethnography of
Bought at the Nettlefold Collection sale in 1946 denuded of half its
keys, this instrument also carries F. Besson's stamp an was probably
made in collaboration with that firm. It differs in several details
from the Morton in the Museum of the Royal College of Music, London, and
from the Haseneier in the Bate Collection, Oxford. Recently I eaxmined
a third contrabassophone. This enabled me to complete a restoration
abandoned in 1946. I will describe the work done and the differences
between the three other instruments, and show why I believe mine to be
an experimental workshop prototype.
Reconstruction of an 1870 Morton Contrabassophone
Deal, Kent, U.K.
The vihuela da mano played in Spain during the 16th century left a
musical repertoire of a considerable importance. Its cultural impact is
present even in literary and iconographical sources. In spite of this,
surviving instruments are today so rare that the two instruments which
can claim to be of the vihuela type (preserved respectively at the
Jacquemart-André Museum in Paris and among the relics of Santa
Mariana de Jesus (1618-1645) at the Nuestra Signora de Loreto Church in
Quito, Ecuador) arouse numerous questions and active discussion.
Another Vihuela da Mano in the Paris Musée de la Musique ?
Mus&eactue;e de la Musique, Paris, France
In this context, it is interesting to point out the existence of an
instrument which could be related to the vihuela type. It is was
formerly in the collection of Geneviève Thibaud de Chambure and
is now in the Mus&eactue;e de la Musique, Paris (E. 0748). This paper
will describe the instrument and compare it with other surviving
instruments and information, especially with the Belchior Dias
instrument (Lisbon, 1581) preserved in the Museum of the Royal College
of Music in London.
Musical instruments were used outside London and court circles in
sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England, but which ones, and how
common were they? A study of wills and probate inventories
c 1570-1690 paints a surprising picture of which instruments
were owned, by whom, and where. This is compared with a detailed study
of inventories from Oxford in the same period, where there were some
assemblages of instruments of considerable importance. These data
include new identifications of at least one maker and one dealer in
musical instruments, and cast a little light on the shadowy area of the
supply and manufacture of musical instruments in sixteenth- and
seventeenth-century England. Another issue to be discussed will be the
`chest' of viols; is this simply a collective noun, or does it refer to
an item of furniture? The answer may help us to understand musical
attitudes and practices.
Viols and other Lumber
The Open University, U.K.
This talk will discuss the choice of silk as opposed to other textiles
and restoration of their work and its present-day problems.
Silkers in the London Piano Trade c 1840-1860
The collection of musical instrument at the Historical Museum Basel
includes about 900 brass musical instruments, most of them formerly
belonging to the collection of Dr h.c. Wilhelm Bernoulli. This paper
will present an overview of the history of this part of the Basel
collection, and discuss outstanding trumpets, trombones and horns by
region and by technical features.
Outstanding Trumpets, Trombones and Horns in
the Musical Instrument Collection at the Historical Museum, Basel
Historisches Museum, Basel, Switzerland
The collection includes the two earliest extant baroque trumpets, made
in Basel in 1578 by Jacob Steiger. As well as numerous instruments from
the most famous center of baroque trumpet making, Nuremberg, the
collection's holdings show also important developments outside of the
main stream. Swiss brass instrument production of the early 19th
century is represented by a number of instruments from the most
important Swiss brass instrument makering dynasty, Hirsbrunner. This
firm made early contributions in the development of valve systems,
independently from Germany and Austria.
The tunings of playable sixteenth-century transverse flutes in Verona
are compared. They may be grouped, not only by pitch standard, but also
according to distinct patterns of scalar tuning, associated with
particular schools of making. The tunings are examined in the light of
contemporary fingering evidence, and are compared with known
sisteenth-cnetury schemes of intonation and fixed-pitch temperaments.
The static embodiment of the tunings in the instrument's form is
considered (principally size and groupings of fingerholes, undercutting,
and bore perturbation), and the conclusions drawn allow unplayable
instruments (for example, those in Bologna) to be interpreted anew. It
is proposed that the desire to perturb the bore readily and predictably
was influential in the division of the essentially cylindrical flute
into two, and in the later adoption of predominantly conoidal bore.
The Tunings of Sixteenth-Century Transverse Flutes
London Guildhall University, U.K.
A Communication by Jan Bouterse in a recent FoMRHI Quarterly Bulletin
discussed early recorders and raised a number of questions. One such
dealt with a variety of established makers including Stanesby and
Bressan producing treble [alto] recorders whose feet differ considerably
in length. Why did they do this, he asked, implying that some makers
came up with a good design and used it and no other. In reply I raised
the possibilty that in addition to using their own reamed blanks they
used some provided perhaps by other persons. Were there, I asked,
craftsmen producing reamers who, to increase their incomes also sold
reamed blanks. If so it is likely that the three pieces of wood these
reamer makers supplied could be of different lengths from those prepared
by the makers themselves. Jeremy Montagu thought this was quite a
reasonable suggestion explaining that he had some years back prepared a
paper suggesting that the outside shapes of recorders from different
makers were almost identical suggesting that perhaps turned recorder
sections were available. This would leave makers to cut the wind canal
and labium, produce the block, drill the tone holes and then set about
finishing the instrument. Montagu further pointed out that key makers
sold their products to a number of instrument makers. Why not wood
borers, and wood turners? Does a study of recorder bores assist in
understanding part of this problem? How similar are the recorder bores
produced in the same workshop and how similar are these to recorder
bores produced in other workshops?
Good Bores, Frightful Bores, and the Recorder
The majority of the well known English virginal music was written in the
period from about 1570 - 1625, and includes many major works by
composers such as William Byrd, John Bull, Orlando Gibbons, Giles
Farnaby and Peter Philips. Modern editions of early sources such as the
Fitzwilliam Virginal Book, My Lady Neville's Book,
and Parthenia were published early in the revival of the
Early Music movement making the repertoire available to musicians.
Two Elizabethan Virginals ?
University of Edinburgh, U.K.
Although most of this music is early, the surviving dated English
virginals range in date from 1638 to 1684. Later music sources survive
indicating that the virginal was still a popular instrument, but this
music is often neglected in favour of the earlier styles. The anomaly
between the dates of the music and the surviving instruments is
difficult to explain, and presents problems to the modern performer who
attempts to play this music on the most suitable type of instrument.
Two undated instruments, both in the ownership of the Museums of
Scotland, share a common workshop tradition and have a number of
characteristics that are different from the dated examples. A thorough
examination of both virginals suggest they are somewhat earlier than the
The paper will discuss both of the instruments, and show the
similarities and differences to the dated English virginals of the
mid-seventeenth century. On the basis of the examinations, and the
information to be presented, a hypothesis that the instruments are
contemporary with the earlier virginal music from the Elizabethan period
will be offered.
Compared to Kirkman and Shudi, the number of surviving instruments from
the workshop of the Dublin-based harpsichord and organ builder Ferdinand
Weber (1715-1784) is relatively small. However, in addition to the
seven extant harpsichords and spinets there exists a substantial amount
of archive material. Probably the most significant document is a 1920s
(?) copy of Weber's Account Book containing entries from the years 1750
to 1784. Although incomplete, this archive provides a fascinating
insight into the activities of an eighteenth-centruy entrepreneur.
A Copy of Ferdinand Weber's Account Book
Jenny Nex and Lance Whitehead,
Royal College of Music, London, U.K.
In the last few years, the finding of ancient instruments and many
archivical documents, reveals an evident role of Naples as an important
centre of production of musical instruments during the period of the
Spanish domination (16th-18th centuries).
Latest News and Documents on the Neapolitan Harpsichord Makers
Latest news and documents, some of which still unpublished, on the
Neapolitan harpsichord makers (among which: Onofrio Guarracino,
Alessandro Fabri, Giuseppe Pesce, Antonio Sabbatino and Gaetano
Carotenuto), show a section of a daily activity of the harpsichord
maker, about his instruments, his property status, and his life.
In particular, through the "bancali" ("fedi di
credito" and "polizze"), an unusual form of payment in
use to a great extent in the kingdom of Naples, registered in the policy
copies ("giornali copiapolizze") of the "Archivio Storico
del Banco di Napoli", it's possible to document the consistence of
the phenomenon from the economic, organologic and historical point of
view, providing at the same time numerous biographical information on
the most protagonists of the Neapolitan harpsichord makers.
The method developed by me and described in this year's Galpin Society
Journal to determine the unit of measurement used to design and
construct Italian stringed keyboard instruments has been applied to each
of the instruments in the Russell Collection of Early Keyboard
Instruments at the University of Edinburgh. This method uses the fact
that the front corner angles in Italian virginals and the tail angle in
Italian harpsichords were made using a simple geometrical construction.
The application of this method to each of the Italian harpsichords and
virginals in the Russell Collection is discussed and the results are
Italian Stringed Keyboard Instruments and Simple Geometry:
Some New Developments at the Russell Collection of Early Keyboard Instruments in Edinburgh
University of Edinburgh, U.K.
The Quantz flute: lecture-demonstration
America's Shrine to Music Museum, University of South Dakota, U.S.A.
Evidence from Konigsberg in 1641 provides the first record of a baryton
being played and of the birth of one of its most celebrated makers,
Joachim Tielke. Of only seven barytons known from the seventeenth
century two (possibly three) are by Tielke and these are the only ones
made outside Austria, in Hamburg.
The Barytons of Joachim Tielke (or the Case of the Missing Body)
London Guildhall University
The identification and location of the barytons made by Tielke is the
intended purpose of this paper. Gunter Hellwig in his report in the
Galpin Society Journal Volume XVII of 1964 identified only one baryton
by Tielke - that in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. Also in
London he identified a Viola da Gamba by Tielke in the collection of the
Horniman Museum which later in his study, Joachim Tielke,
published in 1980 he redesignated as a baryton and related it to the
instrument previously owned by Andreas Lidl. This instrument with its
assumed provenance will be examined to establish, as possible, which of
Hellwig's classifications is appropriate. Recently the detached neck of
a baryton by Tielke has been discovered and studied allowing the
original unaltered baroque stringing disposition to be established for
the first time. The other known baryton by Tielke (Victoria and Albert
Museam) having been heavily altered to a classical (and later)
disposition or in the case of the Horniman Museum instrument - having no
identifiable features of a baryton. The fate and location of the
related body of the Tielke baryton neck remains a mystery.
Research during the past two decades has shown that the earliest known
Spanish piano was built in Seville by Francisco Perez Mirabal in 1745.
His successor, Juan del Marmol, was also among the leading piano-makers
of his time. A recently discovered harpsichord made in Seville,
nameless but dated 1734, together with the remains of another unsigned
instrument probably by the same maker, confirms certain characteristics
of construction already observed in Perez Mirabal's instruments,
suggesting the existence of a distinctive Sevillian school of
construction. The Court's sojourn in Andalusia in 1729-1733 and the
permanent presence of composers such as Jose and Manuel Blasco de Nebra
and Joaquin Montero must have given an impulse to keyboard-instrument
making and playing in the last two thirds of the eighteenth century.
Seville: an Important Spanish Centre of Keyboard-Instrument Construction in the Mid-Eighteenth Century
Beryl Kenyon de Pascual,
During the past fifteen years, interest in performance practice has
steadily increased as period orchestras perform works from the classical
and romantic periods. This presentation discusses the classical and
early romantic clarinets and the conventions of clarinet transposition
in operas and other works written from the 1760s through the 1820s.
These conventions have not been investigated in detail and are part of a
chapter on performance practice issues in my forhtcoming book entitled
The Classical Clarinet.
Clarinet Transposition during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
Fiske Museum, Claremont Colleges, California, U.S.A.
Four conventions regarding transposition in separate clarinet parts
and in scores have been identified: 1)using a clef to indicate
transposition; 2)transposing the part but not indicating the nominal
pitch of the clarinet; 3)writing a direction for transposition in the
part, and 4)not indicating a transposition but having a copyist
transpose the part or the clarinettist transpose by sight. The results
of this study provide a clearer picture of how the clarinettist
performed classical and romantic literature and some of the conventions
used for every transposing instrument.
This harpsichord, which has a particular significance in the development
of the Historisches Museum Basel, had long been thought to be of French
origin. The paper begins with a brief outline of the instrument's known
history, then goes on to show, with reference to six drawings and ten
photographs, how the instrument can be ascribed to the southern
German-speaking areas. Similarities are established with other
instruments of this rare group, and differences noted. The way in which
an 18th century maker altered the original compass is explained, and a
table is given which shows calculated string lengths for the original
An Unsigned German Harpsichord in the Historical Museum Basel
Lewes, U.K., and
Historisches Museum Basel
The physical construction and character of musical instruments from the
baroque differ considerably from those in our time. Musical instruments
are highly important as documents of the music of their period, as well
as means of producing music, and are often also works of art in
themselves. As they produce sound, the very few examples that are
playable are very rich sources and subjects for the application of
twentieth-century methods of acoustic analyses, such as spectrum
analyses. Their sound and timbre can be examined and described, as can
their their pitch (deviations) and the process of attack and decay. In
many ways relatively new methods to describe, analyse and compare them
in acoustical way are available now.
Acoustics of Dutch Wind Instruments from the Baroque Period
Rob van Acht,
Gemeentemuseum The Hague and Institute of Sonology at
the Koninklijk Conservatorium, The Hague, The Netherlands
Recordings and analyses of several wind instruments in the collection
of the Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, were made in collaboration with the
Institute for Sonology at the Koninklijk Conservatorium in The Hague.
Four recorders, eight oboes, five traversos, a clarinet, a bassoon and a
Baroque racket were played and recorded from the following Dutch wind
instrument makers: Richard Haka, Coenraad Rijkel, Thomas Boekhout,
Abraham van Aardenberg, Jan Steenbergen, Engelbert Terton, Willem
Beukers senior and junior, Albertus and Jan van Heerde, Hendrik and
Frederik Richters, Philip Borkens, Robert and Willem Wijne and Jan
Barend Beuker, all musical instrument makers of the 18th century.
When two fingers are moved at the same time complex neurological
activities need to be coupled together. We have used, special apparatus
to ascertain the attainable accuracy, the person operating Morse keys or
touch contacts. When both bend or straighten, the errors are quite
small and are unlikely to impair skilled actions.
Timing of Finger Movements in Musicians
E. Geoffrey Walsh,
University of Edinburgh, U.K.,
R. Ashford and P. Johnson,
University of Central England, Birmingham, U.K.
When however the fingers are moved in contrary directions greater
imperfections are found but the values of 25 musicians at the Birmingham
Sinfonia were not materially different from persons with no special
training. Advanced players of the bagpipes, however, were outstandingly
A treble recorder and a transverse flute have been wired up so that
measurements may be made when playing, studies have also been made with
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The exhibition The Historic Clarinet mounted by the Edinburgh
University Collection of Historic Musical Instruments in 1986 included a
reproduction of a print showing a corpulent clarinettist in late 18th
century court uniform with the title ":I am the greatest clarionet
player in - / Europe / Many years directer of musick to the G----r of
Monoca":. This print was published in Dublin circa 1800-1810: there
is a hand-coloured copy of it in the British Museum. I will suggest an
identification of the subject and explain why this caricature had to be
published in Dublin.
Who was the Greatest Clarionet Player in Europe ?
Deal, Kent, U.K.
"Over the shoulder" brasswinds have rarely been made by
European makers. This paper describes the French trombone where the
player has the choice to put the bell, either as usual (in front), or in
the `over the shoulder' position. This type of instrument is described
in the catalogues of two makers:
The French Trombone with Rear Bell
- Husson et Buthod (1856)
- Gautrot (1867)
The slide is standard, but the bell has an additional straight tube
soldered longitudinally. The slide and bell are joined either with a
U-shaped bow (rear position), or by a looped crook (front position).
Considering the few surviving instruments, this device would seem to
have appeared rather early in the 19th century (before 1834), and
disappeared quickly, perhaps before 1870. The nine surviving
instruments known to the author are:
- tenor valve trombone Bb, Muller à Lyon, two Stölzel valves moved by lateral touches (unique feature). Coll. Guy Laurent, Vichy.
- alto slide trombone Eb, Riedlocker. Musée de la Musique, Paris.
- tenor slide trombone C, Van Engelen, Museum of Fine Arts No. 2011, Boston.
- tenor slide trombone Bb, anonymous. Edinburgh University Collection of Historic Musical Instruments No. 3738.
- tenor slide trombone Bb A.B.T. à Tours, Coll. Arnold Myers, Edinburgh.
- tenor slide trombone Bb, Pollet. Coll. Bruno Kampmann, Paris.
- tenor slide trombone Bb, Martin fils aîné à Toulouse, Coll. Jean Clamens, St Jory.
- bass slide trombone G, Frederick Pace with double slide, coll. Guy Oldham, London.
- bass slide trombone F?, Courtois Frères, Paris 1834, with double slide, Musée de la Musique No. E1255, Paris.
Like Britain, Finland has a long history of all-brass bands, with a
lively amateur tradition running from the 19th century to the present
day. It was fostered by the Russian Csar Alexander III who preferred
all-brass military bands, and even played the baritone himself.
However, in Finland, the emphasis seems to have been on music making and
providing dance music and entertainment for occasions rather than
Instruments of the Brass Septets of Finland
University of Edinburgh, U.K.
The instrumentation quickly standardised on a septet consisting of:
Eb soprano cornet (sometimes replaced by a clarinet), two Bb cornets, Eb
tenor horn, Bb baritone, euphonium, Eb bass, and percussion ad lib. The
cornets were sometimes the Swedish `kornett', more akin to a flugel
horn. Septets started in the 1870s and grew rapidly in the 1880s, but
their popularity has waned since the 1920s. There is, however, an
unbroken tradition both in Finland and amongst Finnish immigrants to the
U.S.A. As well as a repertoire of dance music and vocal music
arrangements, there is also a substantial body of original music,
including some by Sibelius and Järnefelt.
This talk gives a brief account of the instruments adopted and
introduces a performance of some of the original repertoire.
A manuscript collection of exercises and pieces for the dulcian has come
to light in Spain. They were copied by a Spanish dulcian-playing priest
and can be dated between 1802 and 1814. Two more 5-key jointed dulcians
are now known to exist: one in three pieces, the other in four.
Fresh Information on the Spanish Dulcian in the Late
18th and Early 19th Centuries
Beryl Kenyon de Pascual,
Both Langwill and Waterhouse list a maker by the name of C.V. HALLUM;
and both cite a one-keyed flute and three-keyed oboe by this maker.
Neither lists a maker by the name of HALLUW, yet we have an instrument
so stamped. It is an ivory, one-keyed flute with two "corps de
rechange" made from narwhal. Like the ivory flute by HALLUM listed
in Langwill (6th ed, p. 71), the HALLUW ivory flute has one key and
"four small circles" (the maker's mark). I am assuming our
HALLUW to be Langwill's HALLUM...
Yale University, New Haven, U.S.A.
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Further information from:
Collection of Historic Musical Instruments,
University of Edinburgh,
EDINBURGH EH8 9AG, U.K.
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This page updated: 16.7.99; re-published 14.2.13